A

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A – Amperes

A Frame – The first frame in the repeating five-frame 3:2 pull-down sequence. In two-field 3:2 pull-down video, it is the only frame that fully contains both fields from a single film frame. B, C, and D frames have their fields split among two video frames. A frames normally occur on timecode numbers ending with 0 or 5 when using non-drop frame timecode.

access file – A text file called qtaccess that contains information about users and groups who are authorized to view media in the directory in which the access file is stored.

Access Point – A hardware device or software used in conjunction with a computer that serves as a communication hub to wireless clients and provides the same infrastructure as a network bridge to a wired LAN.

Access – To get information from something like a disk or an information service.

Activate – To make a nonactive window active by clicking anywhere inside it.

Active Window – The frontmost window on the screen; the window where the next action will take place. The active window’s title bar is highlighted.

ADB-Apple Desktop Bus – Input circuitry built into older Apple computers. The ADB port attaches the keyboard, the mouse, and other input devices, such as graphics tablets and bar code readers. ADB has been replaced by USB Universal Serial Bus technology in the current models.

ADC – Apple Display Connector carries digital video, USB, and power.

Addressing – A scheme determined by network protocols for identifying the sending device and receiving device for any given item of information on a network.

Ad-Hoc Network – An independent network that provides usually temporary peer-to-peer connectivity without relying on a complete network infrastructure, which includes one or more access points.

Administrator Computer – A Mac OS X computer onto which you have installed the server applications from the Mac OS X Server Admin CD.

Administrator – When you set up Mac OS X, you set up a user. This user is an administrator. As an administrator you can create other users, including other administrators, install software in the Applications and Library folders, and change your computer’s settings.

AFP Apple Filing Protocol – A client/server protocol used by Apple file service on Macintosh-compatible computers to share files and network services. AFP uses TCP/IP and other protocols to communicate between computers on a network.

AGP-Accelerated Graphics Port. AGP is a bus style that allows the graphics card to have a dedicated bus directly to the system memory. Older PCI video cards that shared data bandwidth with all installed PCI cards as well as internal I/O controllers such as IDE, SCSI, and the like. AGP allows the graphics card to be taken off that PCI bus and put onto it’s own dedicated 133 MHz data bus. AGP also introduced a new slot type allowing AGP cards to transfer data faster.

AIFF Audio File – A digital audio file that can be used by iMovie and many other applications. AIFF stands for Audio Interchange File Format.

AIM – ATA Interface Module.

AirPort-Ready – A Macintosh computer with AirPort antennae installed and a slot that accepts an AirPort Card.

AirPort – Name for Apple’s wireless networking technology products. Apple AirPort wireless technology uses the industry standard 802.11 and is compatible with all WiFi-certified wireless networking equipment. AirPort-equipped Macs can connect to the same wireless networks as Windows PCs in thousands of hotel rooms, coffee shops, dorm rooms, and airports. Also, a single Mac with an AirPort card can serve as a wireless access point for up to 50 PCs.

ALE – file Acronym for Avid Log Exchange. A file format that allows film databases to be shared between different systems. See also telecine log.

AltiVec or Velocity Engine – The Velocity Engine can process data in 128-bit chunks, instead of the smaller 32-bit or 64-bit chunks used in traditional processors it’s the 128-bit vector processing technology used in scientific supercomputers–except that Apple has added 162 new instructions to speed up computations. In addition, it can perform four in some cases eight 32-bit floating-point calculations in a single cycle–2-4 times faster than traditional processors.

Announced Broadcast – A method such as Automated Unicast (Announce)enabling a broadcaster to negotiate with a server to accept a broadcast.

Analog Signal – A signal that varies continuously over time rather than being sent and received in discrete intervals. Digital signal-is a signal that is sent and received in discrete intervals.

ANSI – American National Standards Institute.

API – application programming interface.

Apple (K) menu – Menu at the upper-left corner of the screen, used to open System Preferences, set Dock preferences, select a network location, open recent documents and applications, shut down and restart your computer, and log out. Apple System Profiler Application that displays the specifications, such as processor speed, hard disk capacity, and memory size, for your Mac. To open Apple System Profiler, choose About This Mac from the Apple (K) menu, then click More Info. Application menu In each application, the menu item to the right of the Apple (K) menu, named after the application. The application menu is used to access the application’s preference settings and to quit the application.

Apple Desktop Bus – A port for connecting the keyboard, the Apple Desktop Bus mouse, and other Apple Desktop Bus devices to the Apple IIgs. It’s called a bus because several devices can ride the same cable.

AppleScript – A scripting language with English-like syntax, used to write script files that can control your computer. AppleScript is part of the Mac operating system and is included on every Macintosh.

AppleShare File Server – A Mac OS-based computer running file server software that allows users to store and share documents, folders, and applications over an AppleTalk or TCP/IP network.

AppleShare Print Server – A Macintosh computer running software that stores documents sent to it over an AppleTalk network and manages the printing of documents on a printer.

Applesoft BASIC – The Apple II dialect of the BASIC programming language; it’s built into your Apple IIgs. BASIC-Acronym for Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. The most popular language for personal computers; a version of it is built into your Apple IIgs.

AppleTalk – A comprehensive network system developed by Apple that runs on a variety of cable systems and protocols. It facilitates communication between network devices, such as computers, file servers, and printers, which may be a mixture of Apple and non-Apple products. Several elements make up an AppleTalk network system-AppleTalk software and AppleTalk hardware; the latter includes computing components and connectivity components. AppleTalk’s design allows the inclusion of a variety of data-link and cabling methods in a network system. Data-link and cabling methods widely used include LocalTalk, EtherTalk using standard Ethernet media, and TokenTalk using token ring media.

Application – Software designed for a particular purpose, such as home finance, education, or word processing.

Application Environment – Consists of the frameworks, libraries, and services along with associated APIs necessary for the runtime execution of programs developed with those APIs. The application environments have dependencies on all underlying layers of system software. Mac OS X currently has five application environments-Classic, Carbon, Cocoa, Java, and BSD Commands.

Application Programming Interface API – A set of routines used by an application to direct the performance of procedures by the computer’s operating system.

Application Technology – Used to refer to any of the components used to create or support applications. For example, Java is an application technology (a language, in this instance) that is used to create and support Java applications.

Aqua – The Mac OS X user interface, characterized by translucent windows and glowing controls.

Arrow Keys – The keys in the lower-right corner of the Apple IIgs keyboard that you can press in most applications to move the cursor insertion point in the direction indicated.

Art Application – An application for drawing.

ASCII – Acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange; pronounced ASK-ee. A communications code that defines the representation of letters, numbers, and punctuation marks.

ASIC-Application – specific integrated circuit.

Aspect Ratio-The ratio of an image’s width to its height expressed either as two numbers width:height or as a value equal to the height divided by the width. Standard video uses 4:3 0.75 while 24P video uses 16:9 0.56. Film aspect ratios depend on the format and lenses used.

Assembly Language – A programming language very close to the language of electrical impulses that is the Apple IIgs’s native tongue. Because assembly-language programs require very little translation, they can be very fast.

Asynchronous & Synchronous modes – Two connected modems can communicate in either asynchronous or synchronous mode. In asynchronous mode, both modems can send data at the same time and pause at any time. To ensure that data is not lost, extra bits -called start and stop bits – are used to frame each character sent. In synchronous mode, only one modem can send data at a time. The modem sends a continuous stream and does not stop until it is finished; the other modem cannot send until the first modem is finished. No extra bits are used to frame characters.

ATA – AT attachment.

Attribute – In Entity-Relationship modeling, an identifiable characteristic of an entity. For example, lastName can be an attribute of an Employee entity. An attribute typically corresponds to a column in a database table. A column-In a relational database, is the dimension of a table that holds values for a particular attribute. For example, a table that contains employee records might have a column titled LAST_NAME that contains the values for each employee’s last name.

Audio Viewer – In iMovie, the tab with the musical note at the bottom of the screen that displays audio clips in three tracks and volume adjustment controls.

Authentication Authority Attribute – A value that identifies the password validation scheme specified for a user and provides additional information as required.

Automatic Unicast (Announce) – A method of delivering a broadcast to a streaming server in which an SDP file is automatically copied and kept current on the server. A broadcast user name and password must be created before starting such a broadcast.

Auto-Repeat – To happen again and again. The keys on the keyboard are auto-repeat keys-if you hold one down, the computer will keep generating that character automatically.

AVI (Audio Visual Interleave) – A Windows video file format.

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Background Printing – A software application that runs on a computer as a background process, allowing the user to work on other tasks while a document is being printed. A print server-is a combination of hardware and software that stores documents sent to it over a network and manages the printing of the documents on a printer. A print server completely frees a computer of a printing task so that the computer is free to be used for other work.
 
Background – An aspect of multitasking capability. A program can run and perform tasks in the background while another program is being used in the foreground.
 
Backspace – To move the cursor to the left.
 
Backup Copy – A duplicate of a disk. Making a backup copy of a disk is like making a photocopy of a paper document.
 
Bandwidth – The capacity of a network connection, measured in bits or bytes per second, for carrying data.
 
Base Station – The physical wireless newtork access point to the Internet.
 
BASIC – Acronym for Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. The most popular language for personal computers; a version of it is built into your Apple IIgs.
 
Baud – Baud is an older measurement for data transmission speed. One baud is one change of electronic state per second. A more accurate (and therefore more widely used) term is bps (bits per second).
 
Berkeley Software Distribution BSD – Formerly known as the Berkeley version of UNIX, BSD is now simply called the BSD operating system. The BSD portion of Mac OS X is based on 4.4BSD Lite 2 and FreeBSD, a flavor of 4.4BSD.
 
Binary Numbering System – A system in which every number is expressed as a combination of zeros and ones. It’s perfectly suited to computers because the computer’s microprocessor is made up of switches like light switches that can be either on or off. On is represented as the number 1; off as 0.
 
BIND Berkeley Internet Name Domain – The program included with Mac OS X Server that implements DNS. The program is also called the name daemon, or named, when the program is running.
 
BIOS – basic input/output system.
 
Bit Rate – The speed at which bits are transmitted on a network, usually expressed in bits per second.
 
Bit – Contraction of the words binary and digit. The smallest item of useful information a computer can handle. Usually represented as a 1 or a 0. Eight bits equal one byte.
 
Bitmap – A pixel-by-pixel representation of an object.
 
Blower – A blower is a server-specific fan that pulls air through the server’s case, keeping the system cool. A fan, on the other hand, typically blows air into a case to keep it circulating. When referring to a fan in a server, use the term blower.
 
Boot ROM – Low-level instructions used by a computer in the first stages of starting up.
 
Boot – To start up a computer.
 
Bps – Bits per second. A measurement of the speed at which data travels from one place to another; sometimes expressed as Kbps (thousands of bits per second) or Mbps (millions of bits per second).
 
Bridge – A device that connects two networks of the same type together such as two Ethernet networks. The connected networks form a single large network. A router-is a device that connects networks together, isolating traffic within each network. The networks can be of the same type for example, two Ethernet networks or of different types for example, Token Ring and Ethernet. A router receives data transmitted from other networks and retransmits it to its proper destination over the most efficient route.
 
Broadcast User – A user who has permission to broadcast to the streaming server. The broadcast user name and password are set in the General Settings pane of Streaming Server Admin and are used in conjunction with announced broadcasts. It is not necessary to create a broadcast user for UDP broadcasts.
 
Broadcast – Transmitting one copy of a stream over the whole network.
 
Browser Plug-In – Software that you attach to a browser to enable it to display specific data formats.
 
Buffer – An area of memory where information is kept until the computer or a peripheral device is ready to deal with it. Sort of an overflow tank for the microprocessor.
 
Bug – An error in an application or a problem with hardware. The expression comes from the early days of computing when a moth flew into a room-size computer and caused a breakdown.
 
Bulletin Board System-Abbreviated BBS. A computerized version of the bulletin boards frequently found in grocery stores places to leave messages and to advertise things you want to buy or sell. One thing you get from a computerized bulletin board that you can’t get from a cork board is free software.
 
Bus – A network layout that uses a single cable to connect all the devices in a sequential line. Messages are broadcast along the whole bus, and each network device listens for and receives messages directed to its unique address.
 
Button – The raised area on top of the mouse. You press it when you want to choose from a menu or perform other activities in mouse-based applications. Also, in mouse-based applications, a rectangle with rounded corners and a word inside that you click to designate, confirm, or cancel an action.
 
Byte – A sequence of eight bits that represents an instruction, a letter, a number, or a punctuation mark.
 

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Cache Memory – Cache RAM is fast random-access memory that is used to store data for CPU operations. Level 1 cache RAM is part of the CPU itself; level 2 L2 cache RAM is on separate chips. Conventional L2 cache is connected to the system bus, and the speed of its transactions with the CPU is limited by the system bus speed. Level 2 backside cache a feature introduced with G3 computers is located on the same board as the CPU processor board and is connected directly to the CPU through its own high-speed bus. The L2 backside cache allows the system to run significantly faster than conventional L2 cache. As more and more processors begin to include L2 cache into their architectures, Level 3 cache is now the name for the extra cache built into motherboards between the microprocessor and the main memory-what was once L2 cache on motherboards now becomes L3 cache when used with microprocessors containing built-in L2 caches.
 
Callback – A security precaution in which a user’s preauthorized phone number is verified before allowing the user to connect to a network from a remote location.
 
Calling Tone – A calling tone is a high-pitched, intermittent sound that can be produced by a modem that is originating a data call. Some international telephone agencies require that your modem emit a calling tone so that a person answering your modem’s call can immediately identify your modem as a machine and not a human caller.
 
Canonical Name – The real name of a server when you’ve given it a nickname or alias. For example, mail.apple.com might have a canonical name of MailSrv473.apple.com.
 
Caps Lock – A key that you can lock into place so that subsequent letters you type will come out capitalized. Caps Lock doesn’t affect nonalphabet keys.
 
Carbon – The Carbon APIs can be used to write Mac OS X applications that also run on previous versions of the Mac OS 8.1 or later.
 
Card – A circuit board that you can plug into a slot inside the Apple IIgs to expand the computer’s memory or give it the means to communicate with a hard disk, a braille printer, or some other peripheral device.
 
Carriage Return – Abbreviated CR. A nonprinting character that tells the computer or printer to end a line of text and start a new one. It’s used to end paragraphs. Even though you can’t see them, you can delete carriage returns the same way you delete other characters.
 
Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance CSMA/CA – A networking protocol that avoids collisions instead of detecting a collision like the algorithm used in Ethernet networks IEEE 802.3 standards.
 
Carrier – The carrier is the telephone line signal used to transfer data between two connected modems. The sound you hear through the modem’s speaker when it connects is the carrier signal.
 
Case – The outer covering of the computer.
 
Catalog – A list of all the files on a disk. Also called a directory. A subdirectory-is a directory within a directory that usually contains related documents; used to organize the information on large-capacity disks.
 
CD – compact disc.
 
CD-ROM – Abbreviation for compact disc read-only memory. A compact disc can store large amounts of information.
 
CD-ROM-Compact Disc – Read Only Memory, often shortened to CD. One of the most popular ways to distribute programs today. These discs can hold over 600 megabytes of data and are easily portable.
 
CD-RW-Short for CD-ReWritable disk, a type of CD disk that enables you to write onto it in multiple sessions. With CD-RW drives and disks, you can treat the optical disk just like a floppy or hard disk, writing data onto it multiple times. Macintosh computers have slot-loading or tray-loading drives.
 
Cell – The intersection of a row and a column in a spreadsheet. A cell can hold a number, label, function, or formula.
 
Centralized File Service – File service that is provided by a central server accessed by network users. Distributed file sharing-is a type of file service in which users can share the content of their hard disks with other users on the network.
 
CFM – Stands for Cubic Feet per Minute. This is how a blower or fan is rated-by the amount of air it can move, measured in CFM.
 
CGI Common Gateway Interface – A script or program that adds dynamic functions to a Web site. A CGI sends information back and forth between a Web site and an application that provides a service for the site. For example, if a user fills out a form on the site, a CGI could send the message to an application that processes the data and sends a response back to the user.
 
Character Set – The letters, numbers, and symbols that can be generated by pressing keys on a keyboard.
 
Character – A letter, number, or other symbol.
 
Child – A computer that gets configuration information from the shared directory domain of a parent.
 
Chip – A small silicon wafer containing thousands of microscopic components.
 
Choose – To pick a command from a menu. Usually you do this after selecting something for the Apple IIgs to act on.
 
CHRP – Common Hardware Reference Platform.
 
Circuit Board – Also called the main circuit board-is a large circuit board that holds RAM, ROM, the microprocessor, custom integrated circuits chips, and other components that make the computer a computer.
 
Circuitry – A network of wires, chips, resistors, and other electronic devices and connections.
 
Classic – An application environment that allows users to continue to use their systems for everything they already do. Classic applications don’t appear in the new Aqua interface.
 
Class – In object-oriented languages such as Java, a prototype for a particular kind of object. A class definition declares instance variables and defines methods for all members of the class. Objects that have the same types of instance variables and have access to the same methods belong to the same class.
 
Clear – A key on the numeric keypad. Pressing Clear works the same as pressing Control-X. Pressing Control-X while writing a BASIC program cancels the line you’re typing.
 
Click – To position the pointer on something, then press and quickly release the mouse button.
 
Client Computer – A computer on a network that receives network services from a server.
 
Client – A program that requests services from other programs or computers that are functioning as servers or hosts.
 
Clip Art Application – Electronic pictures that you can clip from one disk or document into another. You can buy disks of clip art and use these professional-quality drawings to illustrate your documents.
 
Clip Viewer – In iMovie, the tab with the eye at the bottom of the screen that displays video clips arranged in a movie.
 
Clipboard – A special part of memory that stores the most recent thing you cut. You can paste the contents of the Clipboard into other parts of your document.
 
Clock Rate – The rate at which bits move from one internal computer component to another.
 
Close Box – The small box on the far-left side in the title bar of an active window. Clicking a close box closes the window.
 
Closed Network – A feature provided by some third-party wireless networking base stations. A closed network does not display the network name in the Control Strip. Instead, a user has to know the specific network name.
 
Coaxial Cable – An electrical cable consisting of a central wire surrounded by a second tubular wire made of braided mesh, both of which have the same center point, or axis, hence the name coaxial. Separated from the central wire by insulation, the tubular wire shields electronic impulses traveling along the central wire. In turn, the tubular wire is surrounded by insulation.
 
Cocoa – An object-oriented framework in Mac OS X that provides development tools and services that allow applications to interact with one another and take advantage of a variety of advanced libraries. Cocoa applications look the same as Carbon applications to end users.
 
Codec – Any technology for compressing and decompressing data. Codecs can be implemented in software, hardware, or a combination of both.
 
ColorSync – The color management technology integrated into Mac OS X. ColorSync ensures that the color you see is the same from your digital image onscreen to the image on the paper printed by your printer. ColorSync uses industry standard technologies such as ICC profiles and sRGB color spaces.
 
Column – In a relational database, the dimension of a table that holds values for a particular attribute. For example, a table that contains employee records might have a column titled LAST_NAME that contains the values for each employee’s last name. Attribute-In Entity-Relationship modeling, is an identifiable characteristic of an entity. For example, lastName can be an attribute of an Employee entity. An attribute typically corresponds to a column in a database table.
 
Combo – An optical drive that writes CD-R discs; writes CD-RW discs; reads DVD-ROM discs; and reads CD-ROM discs.
 
command mode – In command mode, the modem interprets data from the computer as AT commands, instead of transmitting the data to the remote modem. When you first open a telecommunications application, the modem is automatically placed in command mode. When you establish a connection with another modem, your modem switches to on-line mode. Before entering an AT command, you must use the +++ command to return the modem to command mode.
 
Command – An instruction given to a computer by menu selection or keystroke.
 
Command key – The Apple Key (K) on the keyboard located next to the Space Bar. Pressed with other keys to perform special actions. Functionality is similar to that of the Control key on a Windows PC.
 
Communications Software – An application that makes it possible to exchange information with other computers.
 
Compatibility – The condition under which devices can work with each other.
 
Component – An object of the WOComponent class that represents a web page or a reusable portion of one.
 
Composite – A video signal that includes both display information and the synchronization and other signals needed to display it. There are monitor ports on the Apple IIgs for an NTSC composite monitor one that accepts signals that conform to the standards set by the National Television Standards Committee and for an analog RGB monitor.
 
Compression – The process of reducing the data size of a file.
 
Computer Account – A list of computers that have the same preference settings and are available to the same users and groups.
 
Computer – A machine that processes words and numbers faster than a food processor can slice potatoes. Not particularly creative or intuitive, but very good at repetitive tasks.
 
Configuration – A general-purpose computer term that can refer to the way you have your computer set up that is, the devices you have attached to it or to the way you have your computer set up to send information to a printer, a modem, or some other peripheral device.
 
Conform Film – To cut and arrange an original camera negative to match edits made in a digital editing system. Also, to assemble video or audio according to an Edit Decision List EDL. See cut list and EDL.
 
Conform Video – To change the frame rate of a video clip. For example, you can use the Cinema Tools Conform feature to change the frame rate of a PAL 25 fps video clip to film’s 24 fps rate. You can also conform a clip to its current frame rate, ensuring there are no frame rate errors within it.
 
Connect Time – The amount of time you spend accessing an information service.
 
Console – The Console application lets you see technical messages from the Mac OS X system software and Mac OS X applications. If you are programming or troubleshooting a problem, these messages may be useful.
 
Contrast Knob – A control on your video display that lets you adjust the contrast between the light and dark on the screen.
 
Control Panel Program – A program built into the Apple IIgs that lets you set the time of the built-in clock and tailor certain aspects of your computer system to suit your individual preferences like the color of text and background on the screen, the volume of the built-in speaker, and more.
 
Control – A key on the Apple IIgs keyboard that, when pressed in conjunction with another key, makes the other key behave differently. It controls the operation of other keys.
 
Controller Card – An interface card that tells your Apple IIgs how to work with one or two disk drives.
 
Co-Processor – A microprocessor on a card that overrides or works with the microprocessor on the main circuit board.
 
Copy-Protect – To prevent someone from duplicating the contents of a disk. Write-protect-Means to prevent changes to the contents of a disk by covering the write-enable notch on a 5.25-inch disk or by sliding the small, plastic tab to uncover the square hole on a 3.5-inch disk.
 
CPU – Central processing unit, a type of microprocessor. In current Power Mac, iMac, PowerBook, and iBook computers, the CPU is a PowerPC G3 or G4 chip. Earlier models contained PowerPC 601, 603, 604, 604e and Motorola 680×0 chips.
 
Crash, Freeze – A system malfunction of the operating system, application, or hardware device that locks up the computer, which then has to be restarted. A freeze is a system error that causes the cursor to lock in place.
 
CRM – Communications Resource Manager.
 
CRT – cathode ray tube, a video display device.
 
Cursor – Also known as a pointer, usually arrow or cross shaped, which is controlled by the mouse, trackpad, trackball, stylus, or joystick.
 
Cut and Paste – To move something from one place in a document to another. It’s the computer equivalent of using scissors to clip something and glue to paste the clipping somewhere else.
 
Cut List – A text file that sequentially lists the edits that make up your program. The negative cutter uses the cut list to conform the original camera negative. The cut list is a subset of the film list you can export from Final Cut Pro using Cinema Tools.
 
Cut – To remove text or pictures from a document by using the Cut command. The most recent clipping is stored on the Clipboard so you can paste it somewhere else if you want.
 
CVS – Concurrent Versions System, a programming code management system.
 

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DAA – data access adapter a telephone line interface.
 
DAC – digital-to-analog converter.
 
Daisy Wheel Printer – A type of printer that produces professional-looking, letter-quality documents.
 
Daisy-Chaining – Stringing external devices together in a series. SCSI, USB, and FireWire technologies all allow such linking of devices in most cases.
 
Darwin – The core Mac OS X operating system, integrating Mach 3.0, operating-system services based on 4.4 BSD Berkeley Software Distribution, high-performance networking facilities, and support for multiple integrated file systems.
 
Data Base Application – A type of application that helps you keep track of lists of information. It makes it easy to recall, update, and cross-reference information.
 
Data Bits – The form in which the computer sends and receives information as a string of bits.
 
Data Compression – Data compression is the process by which data is reduced in size when it is sent from your computer to your modem, and then expanded to its original size by the receiving modem. Since the transmitted data has been compressed, it takes less time to send.
 
Data Disk – A disk that contains your work letters, budgets, pictures, and so on.
 
Data Rate – Amount of information per second.
 
Database Server – A data storage and retrieval system. Database servers typically run on a dedicated computer and are accessed by client applications over a network.
 
Database – An electronic list of records that can be sorted and/or searched.
 
Data – Information, especially raw or unprocessed information. Plural of datum. Information processed by a computer.
 
dB – Decibels.
 
DB9 Serial Port – Rack-mounted servers typically have a DB9 serial port, which gives system administrators a way to access a server remotely through a serial console session even if the network is down.
 
DCD – Stands for Data Carrier Detect. A handshake signal used to regulate the flow of data between the computer and a peripheral device.
 
DCE
 
Data Communication Equipment – Data Communication Equipment DCE is the modem connected to your computer. The DCE speed is the speed of data transfer between the modem and the telephone line. The DCE speed is also called the line speed.
 
DDR – Stands for Double Data Rate, and it’s used to describe memory that transfers data twice per clock cycle, theoretically yielding twice the data transfer rate of standard SDRAM.
 
Default – A value or setting that a device or program automatically selects if you do not specify a substitute. For example, word processors have default margins and default page lengths that you can override or reset. You can select the default action by pressing Return or Enter. The default action in a Mac OS 9 dialog is usually represented by the button with a double outline. The default action in Mac OS X is represented by the button that is pulsing.
 
Defragmentation – Arranging fragments of data into contiguous blocks in RAM or storage memory also called optimizing.
 
Delete – A key that you can press in some applications to erase the character to the left of the cursor.
 
Desk Accessory – A mini-application that you can use without leaving your main application.
 
Device Control – Technology that allows Final Cut Pro to control an external hardware device, such as a video deck or camera.
 
Device – A device that is connected to the computer, like a printer or a modem.
 
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol-A protocol used to distribute IP addresses to client computers. Each time a client computer starts up, the protocol looks for a DHCP server and then requests an IP address from the DHCP server it finds. The DHCP server checks for an available IP address and sends it to the client computer along with a lease period-the length of time the client computer may use the address.
 
Dial-In Service – A network service that enables users to access network resources, such as printers and file servers, from a remote location via a modem.
 
Digital Signal – A signal that is sent and received in discrete intervals. An analog signal-is a signal that varies continuously over time rather than being sent and received in discrete intervals.
 
DV (digital video) – A digital tape-recording format using approximately 5:1 compression to produce Betacam quality on a very small cassette.
 
Digitize – Converting linear analog data into digital data which can be used by a computer.
 
Digitizer – A peripheral device that takes a photo and converts the image into a form that the computer can process, save on a disk, display on the screen, or print.
 
DIMM – Dual Inline Memory Module.
 
Direct Delivery – A type of electronic mail system in which messages are sent directly from one computer to another.
 
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum DSSS – A radio frequency-based transmission method defined by the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN standard that uses a radio transmitter to spread data packets over a fixed range of the frequency band being used.
 
Direct to Java Client Assistant – A tool used to customize a Direct to Java Client application.
 
Direct to Java Client – A WebObjects development approach that can generate a Java Client application from a model.
 
Direct to Web Assistant – A tool that used to customize a Direct to Web application.
 
Direct to Web Template – A component used in Direct to Web applications that can generate a web page for a particular task for example, a list page for any entity.
 
Direct to Web – A WebObjects development approach that can generate a HTML-based Web applications from a model.
 
Direct-Connect Modem – A modem that you plug directly into a phone jack. The advantage of a direct-connect modem over an acoustic-coupler modem is that the phone signals don’t have to travel through the handset, so there’s less distortion. An acoustic-coupler modem-is a type of modem with a cradle that uses a standard telephone handset for transmission.
 
Directory Domain Hierarchy – A way of organizing local and shared directory domains. A hierarchy has an inverted tree structure, with a root domain at the top and local domains at the bottom.mdirectory node-See directory domain.
 
Directory Domain – A specialized database that stores authoritative information about users and network resources; the information is needed by system software and applications. The database is optimized to handle many requests for information and to find and retrieve information quickly. Also called a directory node or simply a directory.
 
Directory Services – Services that provide system software and applications with uniform access to directory domains and other sources of information about users and resources.
 
Directory – A list of all the files on a disk. Sometimes called a catalog. A subdirectory-is a directory within a directory that usually contains related documents; used to organize the information on large-capacity disks.
 
Disk Drive Controller Card – A circuit board that provides a connection between the Apple IIgs and one or two disk drives.
 
Disk Drive Light – A light that comes on when your disk drive is loading from or storing on a disk. Sometimes called an in-use light. When the light is off, it’s safe to put disks in or take disks out. When the light is on, don’t remove the disk inside.
 
Disk Drive – A device that loads information from a disk into the memory of the computer and saves information from the memory of the computer onto a disk.
 
Disk Image – A file that when opened using Disk Copy creates an icon on a Mac OS desktop that looks and acts like an actual disk or volume. Using NetBoot, client computers can start up over the network from a server-based disk image that contains system software.
 
Disk – A platter made of magnetic or optically etched material on which data can be written.
 
Display PostScript – The graphic device interface implemented in Mac OS X. It is the most common display system of UNIX systems, and has the advantage of being able to spool the screen display directly to a PostScript printer, unlike Windows systems and Mac OS systems earlier than Mac OS X, which have to translate the screen display through the use of printer drivers.
 
Display – A general term to describe what you see on your screen when you’re using a computer.
 
Distributed File Sharing – A type of file service in which users can share the content of their hard disks with other users on the network. Centralized file service-is a file service that is provided by a central server accessed by network users.
 
DMA – Stands for Direct Memory Access, in which a computer’s subsystems can directly access memory without going through the system’s main processor. This translates to a performance advantage for a computer that uses direct memory access.
 
DNS Domain Name System – A distributed database that maps IP addresses to domain names. A DNS server, also known as a name server, keeps a list of names and the IP addresses associated with each name.
 
Dock – A row of icons at the bottom of your screen. The Dock gives you instant access to the things you use most. You use the Dock to organize documents, applications, websites, servers, folders, and more. The Dock combines and adds to the functionality of the Windows Start menu and Taskbar.
 
Document – Information you create with a computer program. It could be a memo, a picture, a budget. Also called a file.
 
DOS 3.2 – Stands for Disk Operating System. An early Apple II operating system; 3.2 is the version number.
 
DOS 3.3 System Master – A disk that used to be packed with 5.25-inch disk drives. It performed some of the functions now handled by the Apple IIgs System Disk. It has programs for initializing disks, for copying DOS 3.3-based applications and documents, and more.
 
DOS 3.3 – One of three operating systems used by the Apple IIgs; 3.3 is the version number.
 
Dot Matrix Printer – A type of printer that forms characters with patterns of dots.
 
Double-Click – To position the pointer where you want an action to take place, and then press and release the mouse button twice in quick succession without moving the mouse.
 
Double-High Resolution – A graphics mode that can display information using a rectangular array of 560 horizontal by 192 vertical dots for black and white and 140 horizontal by 192 vertical dots for 16 colors.
 
Down Arrow – A key that you can press in some applications to make the cursor move down one line.
 
Downconverted Video – Video created by converting high definition video such as 24P to standard definition video NTSC or PAL.
 
Download – Transferring data from one computer to another. Downloading is receiving; uploading is sending.
 
DPI – Dots per inch; the number of dots that can be placed horizontally and vertically. This is also known as printer resolution.
 
Drag-To position the pointer on something, press and hold the mouse button, move the mouse, and release the mouse button. When you release the mouse button, you either highlight a selection or move an object to a new location.
 
Drill-and-Practice Application – A type of educational application that presents information, tests your retention of the material, and gives feedback based on your answers.
 
Drive Number – An application might ask you to distinguish between disk drives by number. Drive 1 is the drive of its type connected closest to the computer or to the connector labeled Drive 1 on a disk drive controller card. Drive 2 is the drive of its type connected to drive 1 or to the connector labeled Drive 2 on a disk drive controller card.
 
Driver – A file that tells a computer how to communicate with a peripheral such as a CD-ROM drive or printer.
 
Drop Box – A shared folder with privileges that allow other users to write to, but not read, the folder’s contents. Only the owner has full access. Drop boxes should only be created using AFP. When a folder is shared using AFP, the ownership of an item written to the folder is automatically transferred to the owner of the folder, thus giving the owner of a drop box full access to and control over items put into it.
 
Drop Frame Timecode – NTSC timecode that skips ahead in time by two frame numbers each minute, except for minutes ending in 0, so that the end timecode total agrees with the actual elapsed clock time. Timecode numbers are skipped, but actual video frames are not skipped. This skipping corrects for NTSC’s actual frame rate of 29.97 fps. It corrects for an inaccuracy of 3 seconds and 18 frames per hour in comparison to actual elapsed time when non-drop frame timecode is used. To avoid confusion, drop frame timecode should be avoided in film-based productions.
 
Dropped Frames – Frames that are not captured. If computer performance is impeded or if the scratch disk is not fast enough, frames may be dropped during the capture process. When a frame is dropped during capture, the frame before it is repeated. Dropped frames can result in an incorrect cut list and interfere with the reverse telecine process.
 
DSL – Digital Subscriber Line.
 
DSR – Stands for Data Set Ready. A handshake signal used to regulate the flow of data between the computer and a peripheral device.
 
DSSS – Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum, a type of modulation used in wireless networks
 
DTE Data Terminal Equipment – Data Terminal Equipment DTE is the computer to which your modem is connected. The DTE speed is the speed of data transfer between your computer and your modem.
 
DTR Data Terminal Ready – A Data Terminal Ready DTR signal is sent by the computer to the modem to indicate that the computer the data terminal is ready to communicate with the modem. DTR can also be used for other purposes, such as signaling the modem to hang up the phone called hardware hangup.
 
Dual System Production – Any production using separate devices to record the image and the audio. Always used in film productions and often used in 24P productions. Also known as double system production.
 
Dupe List – A film list Cinema Tools users can export, which indicates duplicate uses of the same film source material in an edited program.
 
Duration – The total running length of a video clip or other media element.
 
DV Format – DV is a digital video format. Common formats such as 8mm, Hi8, VHS, and SVHS are analog formats. DV differs from analog formats because it stores all video and audio information as data in a digital form. Analog is an electronic signal that loses strength every time the video is copied from one medium to another. With the DV format, there is no loss of quality when video is copied between the DV device and computer. When video is captured to a computer, edited, then exported back to tape, the quality of the original footage is retained.
 
DVD – Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc
 
DVD-R and DVD-RW DVD-R is a single-writeable format (similar in nature to CD-R). DVD-RW is a rewriteable format (similar in nature to CD-RW). DVD-RW has a read-write capacity of 4.7 gigabytes per side. It can be rewritten up to about 1000 times. Both DVD-R and DVD-RW were developed and approved by the DVD Forum (http://www.dvdforum.org), of which Apple is a member. Once written, DVD-R and DVD-RW discs can be used in many different drives and players. Check with the manufacturer of, or consult the documentation which came with, your player to find out if it is compatible with DVD-R media.
 
DVD+RW – A rewriteable format of similar capacity to DVD-RW, but was developed separately by the DVD+RW Alliance (http://www.dvdrw.com/).
 
DVD-RAM – Digital Versatile Disc-Random Access Memory. A high storage capacity, writable version of DVD technology good for backing up hard disk data.
 
DVD-ROM – Short for digital versatile disc or digital video disc, a new type of CD-ROM that holds a minimum of 4.7GB gigabytes, enough for a full-length movie. Often shortened to DVD. The DVD specification supports discs with capacities of from 4.7GB to 17GB and access rates of 600KBps to 1.3 MBps. One of the best features of DVD drives is that they are backward-compatible with CD-ROMs. This means that DVD players can play earlierCD-ROMs as well as later DVD-ROMs. Newer DVD players can also read CD-R discs.
 
DVI – Digital Visual Interface. DVI is a technology developed by a consortium of companies that enables a system to store and display moving video images. A DVI connector is more advanced than a standard VGA connector. With DVI all content transferred over the interface remains in the loss-less digital domain from start to finish for high-quality digital images.
 
Dvorak Keyboard – A keyboard layout designed to increase typing speed and efficiency by locating the keys used most often in the home row. Also called the American Simplified Keyboard.
 
Dynamic Element – A dynamic version of an HTML element. WebObjects includes a list of dynamic elements with which you can build your component.
 
Dynamic IP Address – An IP address that is assigned for a limited period of time or until the client computer no longer needs the IP address.
 
Dynamic IP – With dynamic addressing, a device can have a different IP address every time it connects to the network. Dynamic addressing simplifies network administration because the software keeps track of IP addresses rather than requiring an administrator to manage the task. This means that a new computer can be added to a network without the hassle of manually assigning it a unique IP address. Many ISPs use dynamic IP addressing for dial-up users.
 
Dynamic Node ID Assignment – The AppleTalk addressing scheme that assigns node IDs dynamically, rather than associating a permanent address with each node. Dynamic node ID assignment facilitates adding and removing nodes from the network by preventing conflicts between old node IDs and new node IDs.
 

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Fall Forward – or decrease fall back the speed they are using, without reconnecting. This process takes place when the line conditions change-for example, if the amount of static on the line increases, the modems can fall back to a speed that is reliable even with the increased noise level. The process is almost instantaneous. You use the %En, -Kn, and -Qn commands to control fallback/fallforward.
 
Failover – A server with failover capabilities is one in which its functions are assumed by secondary systems in the event that primary systems fail or are going through scheduled downtime. Failover is one of the aspects of making a system fault-tolerant.
 
Fault Tolerance – A system’s ability to respond gracefully in the face of a hardware or software failure. This ranges from the ability to continue to operate in the event of a power failure to the ability for a mirror system to take over in the event that a system fails altogether.
 
Faulting – A mechanism used by WebObjects to increase performance whereby destination objects of relationships are not fetched until they are explicitly accessed.
 
FCC(Federal Communications Commission) – U.S. government agency responsible for communications regulation (www.fcc.gov).
 
Fetch – In Enterprise Objects Framework applications, to retrieve data from the database server into the client application, usually into enterprise objects. foreign key An attribute in an entity that gives it access to rows in another entity. This attribute must be the primary key of the related entity. For example, an Employee entity can contain the foreign key deptID, which matches the primary key in the entity Department. You can then use deptID as the source attribute in Employee and as the destination attribute in Department to form a relationship between the entities.
 
FHSS(Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) – A radiowave transmission technique that rapidly changes frequencies in a pattern that is known to the sender and receiver.
 
Fiber-Optic Cable – A transmission medium that uses light to send a signal through a glass-based fiber.
 
Fibre Channel – A data-transmission technology that allows high-speed transfers at speeds of up to 1Gbps. Fibre channel is faster than other data transfer interfaces, such as SCSI or ATA. Fibre channel can use twisted pair, coaxial cable, or optical fibre as its cabling medium.
 
Field Dominance – Refers to the field that occurs first in an interlaced video frame. If only one field is captured, field 1 dominance means that only field 1 is captured and field 2 dominance means that only field 2 is captured.
 
Field – A word you’ll run across in data base applications and ads for data base applications. It refers to a category of information. If your data base is an address book, name and address will be two of the fields.
 
Field – Half of an interlaced video frame consisting of the odd or the even scan lines. Alternating video fields are drawn every 1/60 of a second in NTSC video 1/50 of a second in PAL to create the perceived 30 fps video 25 fps PAL. There are two fields for every frame, an upper field and a lower field. It is possible to capture only one field of each frame.
 
File Management – A general term for copying files, deleting files, and for other housekeeping chores involving the contents of disks.
 
File Menu – A menu in mouse-based applications that lists commands that affect whole documents commands like Save, Print, and Quit.
 
File Server – Hardware and/or software that allows users to store and share documents, folders, and applications over a network.
 
File Sharing – A built-in feature of the Mac OS that enables users to share the contents of their hard disks with other users on the network.
 
File System – Refers to the way in which files are named and where they are placed logically for storage and retrieval. In Mac OS X, files are placed in a hierarchical tree structure, either in directories or subdirectories.
 
File – A collection of information that you store on a disk. Also called a document.
 
Filename – The name you give your file document before you save it on a disk.
 
Film List – A text file you give to the negative cutter to guide them in conforming the original camera negative. The film list may contain one or more of the following-a cut list, a missing elements list, a dupe list, an optical list, a pull list, and a scene list. May also contain additional information for pulling the negative rolls, making duplicate negatives, making a workprint, or printing effects.
 
Filter – A screening method used to control access to your server. A filter is made up of an IP address and a subnet mask, and sometimes a port number and access type. The IP address and the subnet mask together determine the range of IP addresses to which the filter applies.
 
Finder – The application you use to navigate and organize files and folders. The Finder plays a role similar to that of Windows Explorer. You can customize Finder windows with your favorite tools and places.
 
Firewall – Software that protects the network applications running on your server. IP Firewall service, which is part of Mac OS X Server software, scans incoming IP packets and rejects or accepts these packets based on a set of filters you create.
 
FireWire – FireWire is Apple’s cross-platform implementation of a high-speed serial data bus defined by IEEE Standard 1394-1995 that is able to transfer large amounts of data between computers and peripheral devices. FireWire features simplified cabling and hot swapping, and provides a single plug-and-socket connection to which up to 63 devices can be attached with data transfer speeds up to 400 megabits per second. FireWire is designed to support much higher data rates than USB 1.0; both standards are expected to exist together, serving different device types. With the introduction of the new FireWire 800 standard, Apple now refers to the original standard as FireWire 400.
 
FireWire 400 – FireWire 400 refers to any FireWire port that conforms to either IEEE 1394-1995 or IEEE 1394a-2000 standard. For more information, see the definition for FireWire.
 
FireWire 800 – FireWire 800 refers to any FireWire port that conforms to the IEEE 1394b standard. This standard, which amends the IEEE 1394-1995 and IEEE 1394a-2000 standards, upgrades the prior standards by allowing for faster speeds (up to 800 Mbit/s), new cabling, and compatibility with the FireWire 400 standard. New cabling includes CAT5 unshielded twisted pairs and UTP5 glass and plastic optical fiber. The new amendment is fully interoperable with 1394a-2000 and 1394-1995 standards. It uses a 9-pin connector. By using a 9-pin to 6-pin or 9-pin to 4-pin FireWire cable, you can connect FireWire 400 devices to a FireWire 800 chain.
 
Firmware – Software programs or data that has been written onto read-only memory ROM. Firmware is a combination of software and hardware. ROMs, PROMs and EPROMs that have data or programs recorded on them are firmware.
 
FLEx File – A common telecine log file format. A telecine log is a file generated by the telecine technician during the telecine transfer. Records the key numbers of the original camera negative and the timecode of the video transfer, tracking the relationship between them.
 
Floppy Disk – 3.5 disks that hold 400 or 800 kilobytes of data. These disks and their associate drives were commonly used in the oldest Macintosh models.
 
Folder – An icon that represents a subdirectory. A way to group related documents together on a disk.
 
Font – A typeface that contains the characters of an alphabet, numbers, and some other letterforms such as punctuation marks. Size and style of characters bold, italic, and so on.
 
Footage Number – Part of a key number; refers to the four-digit number indicating the position on a film roll.
 
Footer – Text that appears at the bottom of every page or every other page in a document. A header is text that appears at the top of every page or every other page of a document.
 
Footprint – The surface area of a desk or table which is occupied by a piece of equipment. Can also refer to the amount of memory a software application takes up.
 
Form Feed – The way perforated printer paper is pulled into position for printing. Friction feed is the way a printer moves individual sheets of paper into position for printing. It’s the same way typewriters move paper into position.
 
Format – To divide a disk into sections where information can be stored. Disks must be formatted before you can save information on them.
 
Formula – An equation. By writing formulas to define relationships between the various numbers in your spreadsheet, you can try out different numbers, and the formulas will recalculate all the totals for you.
 
FORTH – A programming language.
 
Fortran – A programming language.
 
Found Set – The set of database entries shown in the Cinema Tools List View window. This set is called the found set because you use the Find command to display it.
 
fps – Acronym for frames per second.
 
Fragmentation – The breaking up of a file into many separate locations in memory or on a disk. It takes longer to retrieve files that are highly fragmented.
 
Frame Number – The last part of the key number. The frame number consists of the footage number and the frame counter, and indicates how many feet and frames into the film a particular frame occurs.
 
Frame – A single still image. Film and video are made up of a series of these images. While a film frame is a photographic image, a video frame contains one or more fields.
 
Frame Rate – In a movie, the number of frames per second.
 
Frames Per Second FPS – The number of frames displayed on screen per second. Also known as frame rate. When video is exported to a QuickTime file, the different formats have different FPS rates. Lower FPS rates produce smaller files.
 
Framework – A framework is a type of bundle that packages a dynamic shared library with the resources that the library requires, including header files and reference documentation. Mac OS X uses frameworks.
 
Free-Form Data Base – A data base that lets you enter information in paragraph form instead of by categories and designate key words that you can search for later.
 
Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum FHSS – A radio frequency-based transmission method defined by the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN standard that uses a technique by which the signal transmitted hops among several frequencies at a specific rate and sequence as a way of avoiding interference.
 
Friction Feed – The way a printer moves individual sheets of paper into position for printing. It’s the same way typewriters move paper into position. Form feed is the way perforated printer paper is pulled into position for printing.
 
FTP File Transfer Protocol – A protocol that allows computers to transfer files over a network. FTP clients using any operating system that supports FTP can connect to a file server and download files, depending on their access privileges. Most Internet browsers and a number of freeware applications can be used to access an FTP server.
 
Full-Duplex Modem – A modem that echoes information it receives back to the sending computer. Most commercial information services are full-duplex.
 
Function Key – A key that tells the application to carry out a particular activity or function print a document, save a document, and so on. Some applications use the number keys on the numeric keypad as function keys.
 
Function – A built-in formula you can use to calculate an average, a square root, and the like.
 

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Echoing – When the modem is in command mode, it can transmit characters it receives back to the computer. This is called echoing. For example, if you enter a modem command in a telecommunications application, your keystrokes appear in the application window if echoing is turned on. You use the En command to turn echoing on and off.
 
Edge Code – Refers to frame counting codes found on the film edge. May be either the latent key numbers used by Cinema Tools or ink numbers added to the edge of workprints. Also known as a Key number-A number put along the edge of the film that identifies each exposed frame.
 
Edit Menu – A menu in most mouse-based programs that lists editing commands like Copy, Cut, and Paste.
 
EDL Edit Decision List – A text file that sequentially lists all of the edits and individual clips used in a sequence. EDLs are used to move a project from one editing application to another, or to coordinate the assembly of a program in a tape-based online editing facility.
 
EDO – extended data out. A type of RAM.
 
IEEE The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. – An organization dedicated to promoting standards in computing and electrical engineering.
 
EJB Container – The execution environment of EJB components. It’s managed by an EJB server.
 
Eject – To remove a disk from a disk drive.
 
Electronic Mailbox – An area on a mail server that stores a user’s messages until they are requested by the user.
 
Email – Stands for electronic mail. A network service that allows users to send messages and files to each other. Email often includes abilities to send, receive, sort, and save messages.
 
Encoding – An algorithm for converting files into a series of 7-bit ASCII characters that can be transmitted over the Internet. Uuencode Unix-to-Unix encode is a popular encoding algorithm used to transfer files between different platforms such as Unix, Windows, and Macintosh. Uuencoding is especially popular for sending e-mail attachments. Another popular encoding algorithm is BinHex, which is often used for transferring Macintosh files, such as PICT graphics files.
 
Encrypt – A way to protect data by coding it so that it appears to be a random sequence of characters. Only those with the password can unscramble the data.
 
Enter – A key on the numeric keypad that usually has the same function as Return; that is, it confirms a choice or tells a program you’re ready to proceed.
 
Enterprise Object – A Java object that conforms to the key-value coding protocol and whose properties instance data can map to stored data. An enterprise object brings together stored data with methods for operating on that data.
 
Entity – In Entity-Relationship modeling, a distinguishable object about which data is kept. For example, you can have an Employee entity with attributes such as lastName, firstName, address, and so on. An entity typically corresponds to a table in a relational database; an entity’s attributes, in turn, correspond to a table’s columns.
 
EOModeler – A tool used to create and edit models.
 
Error Correction – Error correction is the process by which errors that occur during data transfer are detected and, if possible, corrected. Modems use error-correction protocols to correct errors. These protocols monitor the received data and request the retransmission of faulty data.
 
Error Message – The computer’s way of alerting you to a failure in the communication process; often accompanied by a beep.
 
Esc – A key you can press in some applications to get back to the menu or to cancel a procedure that’s in progress.
 
Ethernet – A 10/100/1000 megabits-per-second Mbps network standard originally developed by Digital Equipment Corporation, Intel Corporation, and Xerox Corporation. The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers helped develop the specifications for the Ethernet standard IEEE 802.3. A protocol for communication and file transfer across a network.
 
ETSI(European Telecommunications Standards Institute) – European Telecommunications Standards organization (www.esti.org).
 
Even Parity – An error-checking system in which the sending device adds an extra bit set to 0 or 1 as necessary to make all the 1 bits add up to an even number. The receiving device adds the 1 bits and if the total is an even number, it assumes the message came through intact.
 
Everyone – Any user who can log in to a file server-a registered user or guest, an anonymous FTP user, or a Web site visitor.
 
EXIF–Exchangeable Image File Format. Standard for storing interchange information in image files. This format is part of the DCF standard created by JEITA (http://www.jeita.or.jp/) to support interoperability between imaging devices. Many digital cameras use the EXIF format.
 
Export – The Network File System NFS term for sharing.
 
Extended 80-Column Card – An interface card used in other models of the Apple II that adds 64K of memory and makes it possible for the computer to display information in 80-column format instead of the standard 40-column format.
 
Extended Desktop – A feature whereby you connect two displays to the computer and use both displays at the same time, using the second display to extend the size of the Mac OS desktop.
 
Extension – Short for system extension. Small bits of code used to enhance the operating system. Mac OS X does not use extensions, Mac OS 9 and earlier does.
 

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G3 – G4 – G5 – Generation 3, the third generation of PowerPC microprocessors, including the PPC 740 and PPC 750. The RISC-based PowerPC processing chips designed by Apple, IBM, and Motorola.
 
Garbage – A string of meaningless characters that bears no resemblance to your document. It’s an indication that your computer and peripheral device are using different bauds or data formats.
 
Gateway – A combination of hardware and software that enables networks using different protocols to communicate with one another. For example, a gateway can connect an AppleTalk network with a network using non-AppleTalk protocols such as TCP/IP.
 
GB – Gigabytes.
 
Gigabyte – One thousand actually 1024 megabytes. A term used to describe RAM or hard disk storage space. Abbreviation-GB, Gig.
 
Gigahertz – Abbreviated as GHz. One GHz represents one billion cycles per second.
 
GND – ground.
 
GNU (pronounced “guh-NEW”) Compiler Collection (GCC) – A program that converts programming statements into machine language. GCC takes the lines of code written by a programmer and converts them into a form the computer can use.
 
Graphics accelerator – Also called an accelerator board. A type of expansion board that makes a computer faster by adding a faster CPU or FPU.
 
Graphics Mode – A way of displaying text and graphics on the screen. In graphics mode, images are formed by patterns of dots.
 
Graphics Tablet – A device for drawing pictures. A special pen sends out signals that are detected by wires in the tablet and sent as X and Y coordinates to the screen.
 
Graphics – Information presented in the form of pictures or images.
 
Group Directory – A directory that organizes documents and applications of special interest to group members and allows group members to pass information back and forth among them.
 
Group – A collection of users who have similar needs. Groups simplify the administration of shared resources.
 
Guard Tone – A guard tone is a tone emitted by the modem when it detects a carrier. Different countries use guard tones of different frequencies. For instance, the default guard tone for the United Kingdom is 1800 Hz.
 
Guest Computer – An unknown computer that is not included in a computer account on your server.
 
Guest User – A user who can log in to your server without a user name or password.
 

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Hacker – A person who is on a first-name basis with RAM, ROM, and the microprocessor. A person who’d rather write application programs than use store-bought programs.
 
Half-Bridge – A device used to connect two remote networks over a telecommunications link.
 
Half-Duplex Modem – A modem that does not echo information it receives from the sending computer.
 
Half-Router – A router that is used to connect two or more remote networks over a telecommunications link. Each network is connected to a router, which in turn is connected to a modem. This combination of two half-routers serves, in effect, as a single routing unit. Also called a remote router.
 
Hand Controls – Computer accessories used mainly in games to move creatures and objects. Also used in simulation applications.
 
Handshaking – Handshaking is a method of controlling the speed of data transfer by signaling when each side of the connection is ready to receive data. This ensures that both sides can keep up and no data is lost. In hardware handshaking, the modem and computer exchange RTS and CTS signals over the connecting cable. In software handshaking, the modem and computer exchange XON and XOFF characters to start and stop data transfer.
 
Hard Disk-or Hard Disk Drive, or Hard Drive – Large-capacity, permanent storage for the computer used for storing applications and files, made of multiple disks housed in a rigid case.
 
Hardware – Those parts of the computer that you can see and touch. The computer and the machines that attach to it-the disk drive, printer, and other peripheral devices.
 
Header – Text that appears at the top of every page or every other page of a document. A footer is text that appears at the bottom of every page or every other page in a document.
 
HFS+ – hierarchical file system plus, also known as Mac OS Extended format, a data storage format.
 
HID – human interface device, a class of USB devices.
 
High Definition Video – Refers to any of a wide range of video formats, including the 24P format, providing a higher quality image than standard video. Enhancements can include increased resolution, a wider aspect ratio, and progressive scanning.
 
High Resolution – A graphics mode that can display information using a rectangular array of 280 horizontal by 192 vertical dots.
 
High-Density Floppy Disk – A 1.4-megabyte floppy disk; the associated drive was commonly used in older Macintosh models.
 
Highlight – To select by clicking once on an icon or by clicking and dragging the insertion point across text in a document.
 
Hinting – Hinting creates a track for each streamable media track in the file that tells QuickTime Streaming Server how and when to deliver each frame of media. The hinting process performs in advance the required calculations, allowing QTSS to serve up a larger number of streams. Hinting also allows new codecs to be used without the need to upgrade the server.
 
Home Computer – A computer, like the Apple IIgs, that is small enough and affordable enough to have in your house. When you take a home computer to the office, it becomes a productivity tool.
 
Home Control Device – A device that can regulate the temperature of your home, turn lamps on and off, or monitor smoke detectors and burglar alarms.
 
Home Directory – A folder for a user’s personal use. Mac OS X also uses the home directory, for example, to store system preferences and managed user settings for MacOS X users.
 
Home Finance Application – An application that helps with budgeting, portfolio management, tax planning, and so on. Like a spreadsheet, only easier to use.
 
Home Row – The row of keys on the keyboard where the fingers of touch typists rest when they aren’t reaching for other keys. In the standard keyboard layout, the home row contains A, S, D, F, G, and so on. In the Dvorak keyboard layout, the home row contains what August Dvorak determined were the most frequently used keys A, O, E, U, I, and so on.
 
Hop – A unit count between networks on an internet. Signifies one router away.
 
HTML-HyperText Markup Language – A set of simple tags that tells a computer how to display the text, graphics, and other objects that comprise a Web page.
 
HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol – An application protocol that defines the set of rules for linking and exchanging files on the World Wide Web.
 
Hz – Hertz.
 

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Jacket – A square of plastic that protects a 5.25-inch disk. You don’t remove the jacket and expect to ever use the disk again.
 
Java Client – A WebObjects development approach that allows you to create graphical user interface applications that run on the user’s computer and communicate with a WebObjects server.
 
Java Foundation Classes – A set of graphical user interface components and services written in Java. The component set is known as Swing.
 
Java Script – A scripting language used to add interactivity to web pages.
 
JDBC – Informally stands for Java Database Connectivity. An interface between Java platforms and databases.
 
JEDEC – Joint Electron Device Engineering Council.
 
JNDI Java Naming and Directory Service – Protocol that provides a standard API to naming and directory services.
 
Joystick – A peripheral device that moves creatures and objects in games.
 
JPEG – Joint Photographic Experts Group, a standard for the data compression of still pictures. JPEG compresses image files to yield a smaller file size. The trade off is that some image data is lost in the compression process. JPEG is therefore termed as a lossy format. JPEG is recommended when exporting a still image from a DV clip if the intent is to send the picture through email or use it on the World Wide Web.
 

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I/O Error Message – Stands for input/output. A message you get when there’s a problem with the way information is being exchanged with peripheral devices.
 
IANA – An organization responsible for allocating IP addresses, assigning protocol parameters, and managing domain names.
 
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) – A message control and error-reporting protocol used between host servers and gateways. For example, some Internet software applications use ICMP to send a packet on a round-trip between two hosts to determine round-trip times and discover problems on the network.
 
Icon – A symbol like the one on the back panel of the computer that shows you where to plug in the monitor or a symbol on the screen that represents a disk, a document, or something else you can select.
 
IDE – integrated device electronics.
 
Identifier – In Cinema Tools, a combination of one or more letters, numbers, or both, that identifies a shot, scene, take, video reel, sound roll, lab roll, or camera roll.
 
Idle User – A user who is connected to the server but hasn’t used the server volume for a period of time.
 
IEEE 802.11 – The worldwide industry standard for wireless communications that allows for interoperability among 802.11-compliant equipment.
 
IEEE – The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., an organization dedicated to promoting standards in computing and electrical engineering.
 
IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) – An Internet protocol used by hosts and routers to send packets to lists of hosts that want to participate, in a process known as multicasting. QuickTime Streaming Server (QTSS) uses multicast addressing, as does Service Location Protocol (SLP).
 
IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) – A client-server mail protocol that allows users to access their mail from anywhere on the Internet. Mail remains on the server until the user deletes it.
 
Information Service – A large data base that you can subscribe to for news, stock quotes, and other services.
 
Infrared Technology – A communications method based on light waves that fall between visible and microwave on the optical spectrum.
 
Initializing – Formatting a disk for use in the computer. Initializing creates a new directory and arranges the tracks for the recording of data. Initializing erases all data on the disk.
 
Ink Number – A number added by the film lab to the edge of workprints and magnetic film sound tracks that can be used in conjunction with the key numbers. Also known as an Acmade number.
 
Input/Output – Abbreviated I/O. Refers to the means by which information is sent between the computer and its peripheral devices. Also known as I/O.
 
Input – Information traveling into the computer, like keypresses and mouse moves.
 
Insertion Point – The place where your next action will take place.
 
Installer – Software used to install a program on the hard disk of a computer.
 
Instant On – An advance in Apple’s patent-pending Skip Protection technology that dramatically reduces buffer, or wait, time for an instantaneous viewing experience with streaming video on a broadband connection.
 
Integrated Circuit – An electronic circuit including components and interconnections entirely contained in a single piece of semi-conducting material, usually silicon. Often referred to as a chip.
 
Integrated Software – A group of application programs, usually on one disk, designed to share data.
 
Interface Card – A circuit board you plug into one of the slots in the Apple IIgs to link the computer to a peripheral device.
 
Interface – Hardware or software that links the computer to a device.
 
Interlaced Video – A video frame format that divides the lines into two fields, each consisting of alternating odd and even lines, which are scanned at different times. Used in standard definition video.
 
Internationalization – The design or modification of a software product, including online help and documentation, to facilitate localization. Internationalization of software typically involves writing or modifying code to make use of locale-aware operating-system services for appropriate localized text input, display, formatting, and manipulation. Also known as localization.
 
Interpositive IP – A low-contrast positive film print made from an original camera negative. It is not projectable as a full-color image, since it has an orange mask on it like a negative. IPs are typically used as an intermediate step in creating opticals and duplicate negatives.
 
Inverse Characters – Inverse means opposite. If characters ordinarily show up as light characters on a dark screen, inverse characters would show up as dark characters on a light screen. Inverse is one form of highlighting.
 
IP (Internet Protocol) – A connectionless protocol used to transmit packets of data from one machine to another. TCP and UDP use IP for their host-to-host data communications.
 
IP Address-Internet Protocol Address – A computer’s unique Internet address such as 128.223.32.35 that identifies it on a TCP/IP-protocol network. Many computers also have a domain name assigned to them, which represents IP addresses as words that are easier to remember such as, apple.com.
 
IP Subnet – A portion of an IP network, which may be a physically independent network segment, which shares a network address with other portions of the network and is identified by a subnet number.
 
IrDA – Infrared Data Association.
 
IR – infrared.
 
IrTalk – An Apple proprietary infrared communications standard. Not compatible with IrDA.
 
ISO – International Organization for Standardization.
 
ISP – Internet service provider.
 
ITU – The ITU International Telecommunications Union, formerly known as CCITT, is an international organization which studies telecommunications technology and recommends international telecommunications standards. These standards enable different devices from different manufacturers to communicate with each other.
 

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