Pages Tips

512Pages is a word processing application developed by Apple. It is part of a productivity suite called iWork along with both Keynote and Numbers, and is recognised for its user-friendly, intuitive interface.

With Pages, you can create professional-looking documents that are compatible with other word processing software such as Microsoft Word and OpenOffice. Additionally, each and every document that you create is automatically saved to iCloud and can be wirelessly shared between iDevices for easy access.

Create a New Document

Your first port of call is to create a new document in which to type. Pages includes many different templates designed to help you get started, ranging from invoices, resumes, posters and more.

Step 1: Launch Pages

Click the Pages icon.
Click the Pages icon.

Click the Pages icon in the Dock.

Step 2: Choose a Template

Select a template.
Select a template.

Select a template from the list and then click Choose. For the purpose of this tutorial, I have chosen Blank.

Step 3: Compose

Compose your document.
Compose your document.

Pages is now ready for you to compose your document.

Format Text

Formatting is used to transform a large blocks of text into a more legible format, making your document appealing to the reader.

Step 1: Highlight

Highlight the text by clicking Edit and then Select All.
Highlight the text by clicking Edit and then Select All.

Highlight all text by clicking Edit on the toolbar running along the top of the screen, and then Select All. Alternatively, press  and A simultaneously on your keyboard. You can also highlight a single word by double-clicking on that word, or multiple words by clicking and dragging your mouse across the text you wish to highlight.

Step 2: Format

Introducing the formatting sidebar.
Introducing the Format sidebar.

On the right-hand side of the application, you will see the Format sidebar. From here, you can format your document to your specification.

Click the Font drop-down menu to change the font.
Click the Font drop-down menu to change the font.

If you would like to change the font, click the Font drop-down menu on the sidebar and select a different font from the list.

Enter your desired font size.
Enter your desired font size.

Click  or  to increase or decrease the size of the font, or manually enter a value.

Click Bold, Italics or Underline.
Click BoldItalics or Underline.

Click BoldItalics, or Underline to emphasise text.

Select your alignment preference.
Select your alignment preference.

Align text by clicking LeftCentreRight or Justify.

Choose a line spacing.
Choose a line spacing.

Choose a line spacing by selecting an option from the Spacing drop-down menu.

Change the colour of the font by selecting a colour from the palette.
Change the colour of the font by selecting a colour from the palette.

Change the colour of the font by selecting a colour from the palette.

Your font will then change colour.
Your font will then change colour.

Once selected, the font will then change to the specified colour.

Tip: Pages will automatically spellcheck your work and display a red, dashed line under any possible misspelling. Right-click misspelt words to select a correct spelling from the list, or press Ignore Spelling to ignore.

Create a Table

Tables are used to display data in a neat and orderly fashion, and Pages includes several table templates to suit every need.

Step 1: Insert

Click Table.
Click Table.

Click Table and then select the type of table you would like to insert into your document.

Your selected table will then be inserted into your document.
Your selected table will then be inserted into your document.

Your selected table will then be inserted into the body of your document, ready to be edited.

Step 2: Edit

Insert data.
Insert data.

Insert data into the table by clicking on a cell and typing.

Modify your table further by visiting the Format sidebar.
Modify your table further by visiting the Format sidebar.

You can modify the table further by visiting the Format sidebar on the right-hand side of the application.

Create a Chart

Display a graphical representation of your data by creating a 2D, 3D or interactive chart.

Step 1: Insert

Click Chart.
Click Chart.

Click Chart and then select a chart type.

Step 2: Edit

Click Edit Chart Data.
Click Edit Chart Data.

Click Edit Chart Data to edit the chart’s data.

Input data.
Input data.

Input data into the chart and press the Return key on your keyboard to update.

Edit the chart further by visiting the Format sidebar.
Edit the chart further by visiting the Format sidebar.

You can modify the chart further by visiting the Format sidebar on the right-hand side of the application.

Insert Media

Insert an image, video or audio file to enhance your document further. Pages will automatically display your entire iPhoto, iMovie, iTunes and Aperture libraries for you to browse, categorised by type.

Step 1: Insert

Click Media.
Click Media.

Click Media and then select a file. Double-click the file to insert it into your document.

Your selected media will then appear in your document.
Your selected media will then appear in your document.

Your selected media will then appear in the body of your document and may be moved by clicking the file and dragging it into position.

Step 2: Edit

Edit media by visiting the Format sidebar.
Edit media by visiting the Format sidebar.

You can modify inserted media further by visiting the Format sidebar on the right-hand side of the application.

Insert Shape

Shapes can be used to create a drawing or logo, or to simply spice up an otherwise plain-looking document.

Click Shape.
Click Shape.

Click Shape and then select a shape from the list, or click Draw With Pen to draw your own.

Your chosen shape will then be inserted into your document.
Your chosen shape will then be inserted into your document.

Your chosen shape will then be inserted into your document, ready to be moved or resized.

Save Document

Saving your document will ensure that your work is kept safe and secure, and be accessed at a later date.

Step 1: File

Click File and then Save.
Click File and then Save.

Click File and then Save.

Step 2: Save

Enter the desired name of your document.
Enter the desired name of your document.

Enter the desired name of your document in the Save As field, add a tag (optional), and then choose a location in which to save your file. Click Save.

Tip: If you would like to change your document to a different format, click File > Export To and then select a new format from the menu.

Keynote Tips

512For many people, presentations are overwhelming. They struggle with the delivery or design of the slides, and the result is a mess that bores audiences. Taking cues from Apple’s iconic production introductions, we can learn a lot about how to showcase your important slides. In this tutorial I’ll share five tips, to use with Apple’s Keynote, software for better presentations.

1. Theme Presets

The base for any Keynote is the Theme. To select a Theme and get started on crafting your Keynote, open the Keynote application and go to File > New or press the Command+N keys. Apple provides dozens of ready-made presets for use.

When choosing a theme I recommend sticking to the simple ones, that will showcase your content without distractions, such as the black or white themes.

Another quick way to create a clean background of your own is to start with the White Theme. Then go into the Inspector and use the “Color Fill” option to customize your background. To open Inspector, go to View > Show Inspector. Go to the Slide tab (second from left), and then click on the Appearance tab. At the bottom of Inspector, there will be a “Color Fill” option. By clicking on the color box, you will open the Color window and will be able to customize the color of your slide.

A solid custom-color background will serve as a great Theme for your Keynote.
A solid custom-color background will serve as a great Theme for your Keynote.

Why these themes? They all share some common traits, including modern fonts, simplistic layout, and the lack of textured backgrounds (except for Blueprint). These themes also steer away from shadows, cheesy graphic elements, and bordered photos. Overall, they set the stage for great content rather than distract the audience from what you as a presenter are trying to say.

Another important detail to notice as you select a Theme is the “Slide Size” dropdown button in the lower right hand corner of the Theme chooser. If you know you will be presenting on an old 4:3 projector, go with the 800×600 resolution. If you’re presenting on a widescreen HD projector, use the 1920×1080 size. Going the extra mile to tailor your canvas to the screen you’ll be using is a great way to put your Keynote on the next level.

Notice the "Slide Size" dropdown menu in the bottom right hand corner.
Notice the “Slide Size” dropdown menu in the bottom right hand corner.

2. Use and Format Text Carefully

Text in a Keynote is a double edge sword. It is essential, in some respects, but it must be used sparingly. Presentation experts recommend only four or five words per bullet point, and only four or five bullet points per slide. Others say to use a maximum of 30 words per slide.

Ultimately, you’ll want to use as few words as possible to present your information. Keynotes loaded with text will bore and overwhelm your audience. Your speaking should give your audience the most information. The Keynote is simply there to reinforce your main ideas and your structure, and also to communicate visually when needed. Bullet points are prompts for concepts or ideas on which you can expand.

Picking one or two great fonts to use throughout your presentation is key. While subjective, there are some general things to do when choosing fonts. Don’t use handwriting fonts or elaborate fonts. Sans-serif fonts tend to work really well in Keynotes as well, so choose something classic like Helvetica or Arial.

Consistency, in font use, is also very important. This means that you pick one or two fonts and stick with those throughout. Use consistent font sizes in certain places throughout the Keynote, etc.

Color (or often times, the lack thereof) is key to presenting text well. Generally speaking, you should use black or dark grey for most of your text. For lines or headers that you want to accent, use a color that fits with your theme. But only use color as an accent, not as the rule of thumb.

3. Present Data With Graphs and Charts

Keynote has some incredible three-dimensional charts and graphs. Whenever you have data sets to communicate, don’t hesitate to dive into these tools and create a beautiful visual. Generally, pie charts are used to show percentages, bar graphs show comparison, and line charts show trends over time.

Charts are essential to carefully presenting data. Instead of overwhelming your audience with lists and numbers, charts provide a visual look at information.

To create one of these visuals in Keynote, go to Insert > Chart and select the appropriate chart for your use. The chart will appear on your background, along with the Chart Inspector window, 3D Chart position editor, and the Chart Data Editor. These three windows contain all the tools you need to design and fill your charts with beautiful data.

A chart is a beautiful and simple way to display data.
A chart is a beautiful and simple way to display data.

4. Use Transitions and Animations Wisely

There are two categories of transitions to be aware of: “slide” transitions and “build” transitions. Slide transitions refer to the transition between entire slides of layout. For this transition, you are usually best off using a quick dissolve, or even, no transition at all.

Build transitions refer to the entrance/exit of individual elements on one particular slide. For build transitions, there are several great options depending on how much attention you want to draw to an element. Convergence, Dissolve, Move In, Drift, and Pop are all great options for build transitions. Just make sure to use them sparingly, and keep the “transition time” to a minimum. Also, only use the more movement-based transitions for elements that you really want to accent.

Slide and build transitions can be previewed and edited from the Inspector window. To add a transition to a slide, simply select the slide you want to transition from and add a slide transition. To add a build transition, click on the element you want to build in, and then go into the Build tab in Inspector and add a transition.

Transitions are managed from the Inspector window. Use them sparingly to provide a good effect.

Another great way to use transitions is bullet points. You can quickly and easily add transitions to a text box containing bullet points. Craft your box of text, select the box, and then go into the Build tab in Inspector. Choose a transition, and then under the “Delivery” section, select “By Bullet.” This will bring in your bullet points individually with minimal setup on your part.

Bullet point transitions are very easy to add to your presentation.
Bullet point transitions are very easy to add to your presentation.

5. Plan for Presentation

Keynote includes some great functionality to improve your speaking during your presentation. Apple sells the “Keynote Remote” app for iPhone for $0.99. This app connects to the Keynote software on your mac and allows you to wirelessly control your presentation. This really cleans up your speaking, as you are free to move around and are not tied to looking at/staying at your Mac during the presentation.

Keynote also includes a “Presenter Notes” section. Basically, for each slide, you can add detailed notes about how and what you are going to speak during that slide to coincide with what is on the screen. This could include your outline, facts, statistics, key words, etc. To view and edit presenter notes, just go to View > Show Presenter Notes. The coolest part? The Keynote Remote app shows you these notes on your iPhone screen, keeping you free from your Mac for even the most detailed presentations.

Presenter Notes are a great way to improve your speaking.
Presenter Notes are a great way to improve your speaking.

Numbers Tips

512How to Format Cells According to Your Needs

One of the most common issues of Numbers (which is also present on MS Excel) is the way the application handles fields with numbers that are not always intended to be seen as numerical values. Take the example of screenshots shown below, where I typed 002715 but the spreadsheet displays only 2715. Not only does this happen when you type, but also when you import spreadsheet files from other apps.

Number as Data 1  Number as Data 2

Now, on Excel you can solve this by changing the format of the cells containing such numbers. On Numbers however, while similar, the solution is usually unfamiliar for users.

To change the basic cell format on Numbers, you have to click on the Inspector button on the app’s Toolbar and then on the Cells Inspector tab. Once there, select the cell, cells, rows or columns you want to change the format of and then click under Cell Format.


Numbers Cells Formatting

There, choose from the available formats until you find the one that suits your needs. In my example spreadsheet I selected the Text format to get the results below.

Cells Formatted as Text

Increase the Amount of Rows and Columns or Resize the Current Sheet With Just One Click

If you come from MS Excel, then you might be used to right-click on a set row or column to add more of them. Now, while you can do the same on Numbers (as shown on the screenshot below), there is a far more intuitive (and convenient) way.

Right Click for Adding Rows or Columns

What you have to do is just click on any of the “handles” located at the end of the sheet and drag them along. This will automatically increase the number of rows or columns to preserving the current set cell size.

Add Rows or Columns

Another nice advantage of Numbers being able to handle several independent sheets within a single page is that you can also use the corner handle of any sheet and drag it to increase the overall sheet size.

Increase Sheet Size

Tweak Your Charts by Switching Rows and Columns Intuitively

If you happen to work with charts on your spreadsheets, this Numbers tip will be like a godsend.

Numbers Chart

Click on any chart on your Numbers spreadsheet and then look at the data range where it comes from. You will see a small “List” button that, when clicked, will instantly switch the rows and columns on your chart to give you a different perspective on you current data.

Numbers Chart Column Type 1

Numbers Chart Column Type 2

MS Excel Users

Just as with Excel, the basic commands of Numbers are located at the top of every Numbers’ document on both its main Toolbar and its Formatting Toolbar.

The main toolbar of Numbers, as is the case with Pages, allows you to perform the most basic options, but is also home to more advanced elements that are usually not as easily accessible on Excel.

For example, the right side of the Toolbar lets you insert different kinds of elements to your spreadsheets, like text boxes, charts and shapes, as well as allowing you to bring up the all-important Inspector Panel and to adjust some of your spreadsheets’ fonts and colors.

Numbers Main Toolbar

The left side of the main Toolbar though, is home to a few far more interesting options. From there, you can access lists of the most important formulas and functions, as well as being able to change the view and overall layout of your spreadsheet. Additionally, the Reorganize button on the toolbar lets you access some really convenient sorting and filtering options with just one click.

Numbers Layout

Numbers Filters

The Format and Formula Bars, as expected, behave almost identically as on Excel. There you can adjust the cells’ borders, the alignment and format of the text and much more.

Format bar 1

Format bar 2

One of the major differences between Numbers and Excel though, is the left panel that is shown by default on Apple’s spreadsheet application.

Numbers Panes

This area of every Numbers’ document houses three different (and very useful) panes:

1. The Sheets Pane: This is the equivalent of sheets on Excel. The only exception is that in Numbers, you can have different sheets in one single page, and you can control and position each of them independently.

Sheets 1

2. The Styles Pane: As its name implies, you can use this pane to apply different styles to any sheet with just a click. What is even more, you can also create your own styles, save them and set the default style for all future sheets.

Sheets 2

3. The Instant Calculations Pane: This pane is as simple as it is convenient. It works just like the status bar on Excel when it shows the total of a group of values you select, only that Numbers shows five different operations at the same time instead of just one.


As mentioned above, one of the coolest features of Numbers is that you can have several sheets on one page and choose to arrange them and customize them independently. While it takes a bit to get used to, this feature provides a lot of flexibility, especially when working with smaller sets of data.

Multi Sheet

There you have them. The best thing about these tips? They will not take you more than just a few clicks, but they will save you tons of time and will help you look at spreadsheets with different eyes. – FAQ

What is is a web-based service from Apple that lets you securely share your documents, spreadsheets, and presentations from iWork for Mac and iWork for iPad with anyone, whether they use a Mac, iPad, or PC.

Documents you share on can be viewed in a modern web browser and invited viewers can add comments and document notes.


How do I share documents on can be used to share documents you create in iWork on your Mac or iPad by using an Apple ID and a working Internet connection.

Once you have finished creating your spreadsheet, document, or presentation:
On your Mac: Click the Share button in the toolbar within Pages, Numbers, or Keynote, or choose Share > Share via to get started. Then, sign in to using your existing Apple ID (iTunes or MobileMe ID), or sign up for a new one here. You can then invite viewers to your document via email, choose to share your documents publicly, or upload them for private online storage.

On your iPad: Tap the Share icon within the Pages, Numbers, or Keynote app and choose “Share via” You can then choose from the options to finish sharing your document.
If you choose to share your document with invited viewers, will send each of your invitees an email invitation with a link to your document.


How do I publish a document on for public viewing?
You can publish a document you share on for public viewing by creating a public link (URL) for the document and posting the link on a website. You can also embed a Keynote ’09 presentation you share on on webpages and blogs using the embed code provided by Note that viewers can’t add comments or notes to a publicly-shared document.

To create a Public Link for a document:

  1. Open an document.
  2. Select Public in the Document Info pane on the right.
  3. Click Show Public Link and copy the link so you can paste it into an email or website.

To embed a Keynote ’09 presentation you share on on a webpage or blog:

  1. Publish a Keynote ’09 presentation to (after installing iWork Update 9.0.5).
  2. Open the presentation on
  3. Select Public in the Document Info pane.
  4. Click Show Embed Code and copy the code into the HTML of the webpage or blog.

If you decide to remove public access to a document, open the document and deselect Public in the Document Info pane.


How do I securely share documents on features automatic 128-bit SSL encryption which safeguards communication between publishers and viewers.
You can also password-protect the documents you share, so anyone who receives your document’s URL will be asked for a password in order to view the document on

See Protecting a document with an online password to find out more.


What web browsers work best with
Using the latest version of Safari and Mobile Safari provides publishers and invited viewers with the best experience for viewing documents on You may be able to use other browsers listed below but not all features are supported. Supported browsers are:

  1. Safari 4 or higher for Mac and Windows
  2. Firefox 3 or higher
  3. Internet Explorer 7 or higher
  4. Mobile Safari 2 or higher for iOS.


Can I send my documents to without inviting others?

  1. From any of the iWork applications on your Mac, just choose “Upload for private use” from the share options in the dialogue that appears after you click the Share button.
  2. From any of the iWork for iPad apps, just leave the To field blank in the Share via window.

To access your document, go to from any supported web browser and sign in using your Apple ID. You now have access to your document from any Mac, iPad or PC that is connected to the Internet.


What does cost? is currently in beta and is free. Fees may apply in the future.


How do I report abuse on
If you believe that materials posted on are in violation of the Terms of Service, click the link below and follow the instructions under Section 4 to report abuse. Terms of Service


Where can I find out more about using
The following links provide more information about
Learn more on Help discussion boards News

Top Tips for iLife and iWork


1. Enable scrolling zoom in Places maps
The new Places feature in iPhoto allows you to explore your photos on a map. Photos taken on a GPS enabled camera (i.e. the iPhone) will be automatically geo-tagged, or you can enter the location information manually. Annoyingly, by default the maps don’t allow you to zoom using the two-fingered scroll on the trackpad or a scroll wheel on your mouse. To enable this, just open up Terminal (in Applications/Utilities), type the following line and hit enter:

defaults write MapScrollWheel -bool YES

To disable the scrolling zoom again, just repeat the command with NO at the end instead.

2. Include location information in uploaded photos
The default setting is for iPhoto to remove the geo-tagging information from your photos when you upload them to the web, presumably so people don’t unwittingly broadcast their location to the world. If you want to keep the location information in uploaded photos, go to the Web section of iPhoto preferences and check the box next to “Include location information for published photos.”

3. Set a key photo for someone
Changing a person’s key photo is exactly the same as changing the key photo for an event. Just move your mouse from left to right over their photo on the corkboard to cycle through all the photos of that person. When one you like is displayed, just hit the space bar to make that the new key photo. If you can’t find the one you want this way, just go into that person’s photos, right click on the new key photo and choose “Make Key Photo” from the contextual menu.

4. Enter information about a person
When you hold your mouse over someone in Faces, an small i appears. Clicking on this will allow you to enter a full name and email address for that person. It will also show you the number of photos with that person in, and the range of dates of photos they’re in.

5. Batch accept or reject faces
If you look at a person’s photos in Faces, there will be a group of unconfirmed faces that iPhoto has identified for you. To confirm a large group of faces at once, just drag across all the photos. To reject a group of photos, hold the Option key while doing this. You can also just Option-click on photos to reject them individually.

6. Corner-achored resize when adding faces
iPhoto’s default behaviour when adding a missing face is a centre-anchored resize. To change this to the usual corner-anchored resize, just hold down the option key when dragging over a face.

7. Easily switch between multiple libraries
iPhoto libraries are now double-clickable from the Finder. If you want to open a different library in iPhoto, just open up your Pictures folder and double-click a different library file. iPhoto will then load up with the new library. No need for holding Option on launch anymore.


8. Create iPhone ringtones
To create a free ringtone from any MP3 or AAC file just choose “Example Ringtone” from the iPhone Ringtones section in the New dialog. Delete the example that Apple has provided, then select a song from your iTunes library by clicking on the Media button in the bottom right. Drag your chosen song into your GarageBand project. Move and resize the yellow bar at the top to choose the section of the song you want to loop for your ringtone. Finally, choose “Send to iTunes” from the Share menu.

9. Use Learn to Play on PowerPC or Core Solo Macs
The new Learn to Play lessons in GarageBand require a dual core Intel based Mac to run. If you are running an old PowerPC Mac or Core Solo Mac Mini, you can get around this by going to /Library/Application Support/GarageBand/Learn to Play/Basic Lessons. Once here, double-click on one of the .mwand files to open it in GarageBand. Consider closing all the other applications on your Mac if the lessons run slowly.


10. Get movies from other locations
If the videos you want aren’t in the Event Library, just right-click below your list of events to import videos from anywhere on your hard drive or from within an older iMovie file.

11. DVD chapters are back
One feature that disappeared for a while was the ability to add DVD chapters in iMovie. For a while you had to do a laborious work around involving GarageBand. Now you can add chapter markers in iMovie, and they’ll be carried across when you export to iDVD.

12. Add a location to travel maps
If you want to use a location in the travel maps feature that iMovie doesn’t have listed, you can add it to the locations file. Find iMovie in your applications folder, right-click on it and choose “Show Package Contents.” In the Resources folder find WorldLocations.txt and open it up in TextEdit. On a new line, enter the place name followed by a tab, then the region followed by a tab, then the country followed by a tab, and finally the latitude and longitude separated by a comma.

For example you could add:

Duxford   Cambridge   UK   52.093851,0.184870


13. Get the free trial
As well as the boxed version, Apple offers a free 30 day trial of iWork to download from their web site. One thing to remember though is if you don’t intend to upgrade after 30 days, remember to save any new or changed files back in the iWork ’08 format just in case they don’t work any more once your trial expires. You can do this by choosing iWork ’08 from the “Save copy as” menu in the Save As dialog.

14. Enable hidden picture frames
Pages, Keynote and Numbers all have various different styles of picture frame that you can place around any object by choosing it from the stroke menu in the Graphic Inspector. However, it turns out there are loads of frames that are disabled by default. You just need to edit a single file to enable them.

Choose the application where you want to enable the hidden frames (Pages, Keynote or Numbers), right click and choose “Show Package Contents”. Look in the Resources folder for one of the three following files:

For Pages, look for SLGraphicInspectorFrames.plist
For Keynote, look for BGGraphicInspectorFrames.plist
For Numbers, look for LSGraphicInspectorFrames.plist

Open it up in TextEdit, and notice how the names of the different picture frames are listed. The new frames available with iWork ’09 are Fine_Artist, Jet Set, Moroccan, Nature, Nature2, Typeset, Venetian, Venetian2, and Venetian3. For example just add Fine_Artist to the end of the list. As well as these new frames available in iWork ’09, there are many more that also work in iWork ’08 listed here.

15. Temporarily disable guide lines
When moving objects around, all the iWork applications helpfully give alignment guides that will snap the objects so they are perfectly in line with each other. Sometimes, when you don’t want objects aligned or you want to align them in a different way, this can be quite annoying. The way to temporarily disable the guide lines is to hold down the command key while you are dragging the object. Now your shape, image or text box can be freely dragged to whatever position you want.

16. Password protect iWork documents
This is something that has been annoyingly difficult to do on the Mac for a long time. Generally previous solutions involved creating encrypted disk images, however, now all the iWork applications have a “Require password to open” option in the Document section of the Inspector.

17. Export has moved
The export command that used to be in the File menu has now moved to the Share menu. Also, remember that if you want to export to Microsoft Word format, you can now do this directly from the Save As… option.

18. Using the keyboard to create formulas in Numbers

When creating functions and formulas in numbers, you almost always want to refer to another cell or group of cells. In Numbers ’08 you had to use the mouse to select these cells, but now you can use the keyboard to select them. Simply hold down the Option key and use the arrow keys to move about. To select a group of cells, hold down Shift as well as Option, and continue using the arrow keys to make the selection. To change the reference from relative to absolute, just hit Command-K to cycle through all the different possibilities.

19. Advanced Gradients
The gradient fill options in iWork ’08 were fairly limited. In iWork ’09 you can now create linear or circular gradients with as many colours as you like by choosing “Advanced Gradient Fill” from the Fill menu.

20. Applescript in Numbers
One of the great new features of Numbers is Applescript support. Here are a few example scripts to give you an idea of what kind of thing is possible.