Apple Music Tips

Use Apple Music in the Music app

With your Apple Music membership, you can access more than 30 million songs, curated radio and playlists, and music recommendations, all in the Music app.

When you join Apple Music, you get access to a whole world of music—any of our 30 million songs and all of your songs—through the Music app.

In the Library tab, you can find all of your music. The For You tab has music that’s handpicked by experts just for you, and exclusive content from your favorite artists. The Browse tab shows you all of the latest hits and curated playlists. From the Radio tab, you can listen to Beats 1, our 24/7 worldwide radio station, and Apple Music’s on-demand stations. And you can use the Search tab to find music that you want to listen to or see what other members are searching for.

If you’re not already a member of Apple Music, join today and get 3 months free.*

Apple Music features vary by country.

Library and Playlists

The Library tab makes it easy to navigate all of your music, wherever it comes from—from the iTunes Store, from a rare import CD, or from your Apple Music membership. Every time that you add a song, album, or playlist, we keep it at the top of Library in Recently Added. Tap Edit in the upper-right corner to change which view options (Playlists, Artists, Albums, Songs, Video, Genres, Compilations, Composers, and Downloaded Music) you see.

Play your music

If you want to listen to an artist’s entire collection of music that you’ve saved to your library, find the artist in Library > Artists. Tap Shuffle All  to play all of their music.

When you play a song, you see a player at the bottom of the screen. You can keep browsing other titles to find the perfect next song.

Tap or swipe up on the player at the bottom to see the Now Playing screen and controls. Tap the  at the top of the screen or swipe down to close Now Playing.

Up Next, Shuffle, and Repeat

Also on the Now Playing screen, you can rewind, pause, or fast forward a song, control the volume, read song lyrics, and more.

Swipe up on Now Playing to show your Up Next queue, which lists all of the songs that you’ve selected for playback.

Drag songs with move icon to rearrange the order, or swipe left to remove a song that you’d like to skip.

Tap shuffle icon Shuffle to shuffle the songs in a playlist or album.

Tap repeat icon Repeat once to play an entire playlist or album on repeat or twice to repeat one song. Tap repeat icon a third time to clear the repeat.

If you have repeat turned on, you might not see move icon .

Show Lyrics

Lyrics aren’t available for all songs. When lyrics are available, tap  then Lyrics to show the lyrics, or tap Show to the right of Lyrics above Up Next.

You can’t use Lyrics in Airplane Mode or when you’re not connected to the Internet. And, if you have explicit content turned off, lyrics might not be visible to you if they contain explicit words.

Learn more about Lyrics in Apple Music.

Create a playlist

You can create playlists to listen to or share with friends. From the Library tab, tap Playlists, then New Playlist. Fill in details for your playlist, such as the title and description, then add music. If you like, you can also add an image. When you’re happy with your playlist, tap Done in the upper-right corner.

If you don’t see Playlists under Library, tap Edit in the upper-right corner, then tap Playlists to turn it on. Tap Done to return to Library.

Share your music

To share a song, press and hold the song, then tap Share Song . To share an album or playlist, tap , then Share Album or Playlist . You can share music to Facebook or Twitter, send using Mail or Messages, or copy the link.

With iOS 10 or later, people you share music with in Messages can listen to or preview songs directly in the Messages app. If they have an Apple Music membership, they can play the full song. If they don’t have an Apple Music membership, they can listen to the iTunes Store preview for the item and then go to the iTunes Store to purchase it.

Listen offline

You can download songs, albums, or playlists to your device so that you can listen to them when you’re not connected to the Internet**.

Find the song, album, or playlist that you want to download, then tap Apple Music download icon. You’ll see  when the download is complete. If you don’t see Apple Music download iconadd the music to your Library, then download it to your device.

If you want to automatically download any music that you add to your library, go to Settings > Music, then scroll to the Downloads section and turn on Automatic Downloads. After you turn on Automatic Downloads, when you add music to your library, it downloads automatically to your device or computer. You’ll see  when the download is complete.

If you want to see only music that’s downloaded to your device, tap Library > Downloaded Music. A message that says “Showing only music on this [device]” appears at the top of the screen. Tap Library in the upper-left corner to see all of your music.

For You

In the For You tab, you can discover albums and playlists curated by our team of experts to match your musical tastes, updated daily. The suggestions you see in For You are influenced by:

You can also see what you’ve been playing recently, as well as posts from your favorite artists in Connect.

Connect

You can Like Connect posts, write comments to the artist, and see what other fans have to say. You can also share an artist’s post with your friends through social media. Just tap Share.

To follow an artist in Connect, search for or tap an artist to open their artist page, tap , and then tap Follow on Connect follow on Connect . When you follow an artist, any new posts that they make are automatically added to your Connect Posts feed. You can follow an artist even if you don’t have their music in your library.

To see the artists that you follow, tap your profile icon in the upper-left corner, and then tap “Find More Artists and Curators.” Tap unfollow on Connect to the right of an artist to stop following them. To stop automatically following artists when you add their songs to your music library, turn off Automatically Follow Artists: Tap For You, then tap account icon or your photo. Tap “Find More Artists and Curators,” then turn off Automatically Follow Artists.

Browse

Apple Music is dedicated to bringing you the latest and greatest in music. The Browse tab features music that’s new, popular, and up-and-coming each week, and you can browse the Apple Music Catalog by genre.

In the Browse tab you’ll also find playlists curated by Apple Music Editors and industry partners. Tap Curated Playlists to view new and featured playlists, playlists created with specific activities and moods in mind, and playlists curated by industry names you’re sure to recognize. You can also listen to genre-specific playlists.

And you can add any of these songs and playlists to your library, too.

Radio

Beats 1, our 24/7 radio station, features radio shows from legendary artists and DJs that you can listen to live or on-demand. Tune in to hear exclusive interviews, guest hosts, and the best of what’s going on in music.

Radio also features curated stations for every genre of music, or you can create your own custom stations. These stations don’t have ads, and you can skip an unlimited number of songs as you listen. You can also add songs that you like to your Apple Music library.

Learn more about Radio.

You can also use Siri to search Apple Music at any time or ask Siri to help you play music using instructions like these:

  • “Play the top songs from 2016.”
  • “Play more songs like this.”
  • “Add the new Taylor Swift album to my library.”
  • “Play an album by Pharrell Williams that you think I will like.”
  • “Play Drake’s top songs.”
  • “Play happy music.”
  • “Play something for working out.”
  • “Play my new releases.”

Listen to Radio in Apple Music

Listen to Beats 1—Apple’s 24/7, free worldwide radio station—and other live stations on your iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, Mac, PC, Apple TV, or Android phone. Apple Music members can also listen to curated on-demand stations or create their own.

About Radio

Radio includes:

  • Beats 1. Beats 1 broadcasts 24/7 to more than 100 countries. Tune in for free to hear exclusive interviews, guest hosts, and the best of what’s going on in music. Listen now to Beats 1 and view the full program guide.
  • Other live stations. Apple Music also features live stations such as Bloomberg Radio, ESPN News and Sports, and NPR News and Culture. You don’t need to be a member of Apple Music to listen to Beats 1 or these other live stations.
  • On-demand and custom stations. With an Apple Music membership, you can listen to curated on-demand stations or create your own custom stations. These stations don’t have ads, and you can skip an unlimited number of songs as you listen. You can also add songs that you like to your Apple Music library.

Start listening to Radio

Before you can listen to Radio, make sure that your device meets the requirements and sign in with your Apple ID.

To listen on your iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, open the Music app and tap the Radio tab  at the bottom of the screen.

To listen on your Mac or PC, open iTunes. In the upper-left corner, choose  Music. Then, from the navigation bar at the top of iTunes, choose Radio.

To listen on your Apple TV, open the Music app, then select Radio at the top of the screen.

To listen on your Android phone, open the Music app, tap Android menu icon in the upper-left corner, then tap Radio.

Create a custom station from a song, album, or artist

Use Search to find artists, albums, or songs that you want to use to create a custom Radio station. You can search the entire Apple Music catalog for specific artists, albums, or songs, or see trending searches. To search Apple Music:

  • On your iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, tap the Search tab Android search icon at the bottom of the screen.
  • On your Mac or PC, click in the Search box in the upper-right corner of iTunes, then click All Apple Music.
  • On your Apple TV, select Search from the top of the screen.
  • On your Android phone, tap Android search icon in the upper-right corner of the app.

Then, scroll to the Stations section and choose the station that you want to listen to.

On your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch, you can use 3D Touch to create a station. When you find a song or artist that you would like to create a station from, use 3D touch or tap More Options , then tap “Create Station.” You can also ask Siri to “Start a station from …” and then say the name of a song, album, or artist.

Your new station will be added to your list of Recently Played stations. Recently Played stations are in order of most recently played and can’t be deleted.

Fine-tune your custom stations

While listening to your custom station in Radio on your iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, tap a song to open the Now Playing screen, then tap . Tap Play More Like This or Play Less Like This to fine-tune your custom station.

While listening on your computer, click  then click Play More Like This or Never Play This Song.

While listening on your Apple TV, hold down on the Touch surface of your remote, then select Play More Like This or Play Less Like This.

You can also turn Explicit Content on or off on your iPhone, iPad, iPod touchin iTunes on your Mac or PC, on your Apple TV, or on your Android phone.

Add music from Radio to your library

When you hear music that you like on Radio, you can add it to your Library or just add it to a playlist.

On your iPhone, iPad, iPod touch:

  1. Tap the song to open the Now Playing screen, then tap iOS More Options icon to the right of the song.
  2. Tap “Add to Library ” to add the song to your Library or tap “Add to a Playlist   .”

On your Mac or PC:

  1. Hold your pointer over the song’s name at the top of iTunes, then click  .
  2. Choose “Add to Library” or “Add to Playlist.” You can add the song to an existing playlist or create a new one.

On your Apple TV, hold down on the Touch surface of your remote, then select “Add to Library” or “Add to a Playlist.”

On your Android phone:

  1. Tap Android More Options icon to the right of the song, album, or playlist.
  2. Tap  Android add icon to add the song to My Music or tap “Add to a Playlist.”

Share your stations

On your iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, Mac or PC, you can share any Radio station through AirDrop, Messages, Mail, Twitter, and Facebook. Tap iOS More Options icon  or click , and then tap or click Share Station .

On your Android phone, tap the Share icon  to see your sharing options.

Radio requirements

To listen to Radio, you need an Apple ID and:

  • iOS 8.4 or later on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch. Update your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch.
  • iTunes 12.2 or later on your Mac or PC. Get the latest version.
  • An Apple TV (4th generation) with tvOS 9.0 or later.
  • An Android phone with Android 4.3 (Jelly Bean) or later and the Apple Music app.

To access the full Radio experience, join Apple Music.

Radio is available only in select countries and features vary by country. Find out what’s available in your country.

Learn how to cancel your membership, change from an Individual to a Family or Student membership type, or join an existing Family Membership.

Cancel your membership

You can cancel your Apple Music membership on your iPhone, iPad or iPod touch; your Mac or PC; or your Apple TV (4th generation).

Your membership might renew if you don’t cancel your membership more than 24 hours before your renewal date.

On your iPhone, iPad or iPod touch: Open the Music app and tap For You. Tap your profile icon  or your photo in the upper-right corner, then tap View Apple ID. (You might be asked to sign in.) Under Subscriptions, tap Manage, then follow these steps to cancel your Apple Music membership.

On your Mac or PC: Open iTunes. From the menu bar at the top of your computer screen or the top of the iTunes window, choose Account > View My Account. (You might be asked to sign in.) Under Settings, click Manage to the right of Subscriptions, then follow these steps to cancel your Apple Music membership.

On your Apple TV (4th generation): Go to Settings > Accounts, then select Manage Subscriptions under Subscriptions. (You might be asked to enter your Apple ID and password.) Then follow these steps to cancel your membership. On Apple TV (3rd generation or earlier), you can only manage subscriptions on an iOS device or computer.

Change your membership

With a Family Membership to Apple Music, families of up to six people can enjoy all of the benefits of Apple Music, each with their own library. If you joined Apple Music as an individual member, you can change to a Family Membership at any time. You can also switch back to an Individual Membership if you choose. You can also join an existing Family Membership.

To use a Family Membership to Apple Music, you must set up Family Sharing on your iOS device or Mac. Learn more about Apple Music and Family Sharing.

With a Student Membership, students attending degree-granting colleges or universities in select countries can use Apple Music at a discounted membership price for up to 48 months (4 years). Learn more about joining as a student member.

Follow the steps to change from an Individual Membership to a Family or Student Membership on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch; on your Mac or PC; or on your Apple TV (4th generation).

On your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch

  1. In the Music app, tap For You, then tap Apple Music profile icon or your photo in the upper-right corner.
  2. Tap View Apple ID. You might be asked to sign in or use Touch ID.
  3. Tap Subscriptions. If you have more than one subscription, then tap Apple Music Membership to see your membership options.
  4. Under Options, choose the type of membership that you want.
    If you want to change to a Family Membership, tap Family. Confirm your selection, then tap Back.
    If you want to change to a Student Membership, tap Student. A new window opens. Tap Verify Eligibility, then follow the steps to validate your student status.
  5. Tap Back to return to your Account screen, and then tap Done to return to the app.

On your Mac or PC

To automatically open iTunes and sign in to your Account Information page from your computer, click this link: View My Account. Or follow these steps:

  1. Open iTunes.
  2. If you’re not signed in, sign in with your Apple ID.
  3. From the menu bar at the top of your computer screen or at the top of the iTunes window, choose Account > View My Account.
  4. Enter your password, then press the Return or Enter key on your keyboard, or click View Account.

On the Account Information page:

  1. Scroll to the Settings section.
  2. To the right of Subscriptions, click Manage. If you have more than one subscription, click Edit to the right of Your Membership (Apple Music Membership).
  3. Choose the type of Membership that you want:
    If you want to change to a Family Membership, select Family. Then confirm your selection.
    If you want to change to a Student Membership, click Student (1 Month) Verification Required. A new window opens. Tap Verify Eligibility, then follow the steps to validate your student status.
  4. Click Done to return to Account Information, and then click Done to return to the iTunes Store.

On your Apple TV (4th generation)

  1. Open Settings, then select Accounts. Under Subscriptions, select Manage Subscriptions. You might be asked to enter your Apple ID and password.
  2. Select Apple Music membership from your list of active subscriptions, then choose the type of membership that you want.

On Apple TV (3rd generation or earlier), you can only manage subscriptions on an iOS device or computer.

Join an existing Family Membership

If you have an Apple Music Individual Membership and want to join an existing Family Membership, follow these steps:

  1. Cancel your Individual Membership.
  2. Ask the organizer of the Family Membership that you want to join to invite you to join the group.
  3. Accept the invitation to join a family group.
  4. After you accept the invitation, open the Apple Music app and check to make sure that you’re a part of the group.

GarageBand Tips

icon256The new GarageBand features are impressive. You can fix your guitarist’s inability to keep a beat. You can extend that final note of your song. You can even keep track of your progress as you learn the guitar or keyboards.

But before you get the guitar, keyboards or mics out, it’s actually helpful if you know how to use some of the big ticket items without fumbling around for hours. We even highlighted a few little known features to help round out your GarageBand knowledge.

Set up Your Info

By default, GarageBand uses your account information on your Mac as your artist name. Before you start working on your tunes, it’s probably a good idea to change this information.

GarageBand>Preferences under the My Info tab. Change it or you’ll end up like me with a lame Artist name.


Turn off your Screensaver

It seems like a no brainer, but when you have your guitar all hooked up and ready to rock, the last thing you need is your Hello Kitty screen saver popping up right before you strum that first note.

Head to System Preferences > Desktop & Screen Saver and turn it off.

Record with Multiple Devices

Apple tells you that you can now record multiple tracks at once. You plug your guitars in and nothing happens. Here’s what you need to do to get the band back together.

You’re going to create an Aggregate Device. This will alow you to have multiple devices plugged in to your Mac and have GarageBand recognize them individually instead of just one input.

Head on over to Utilities/Audio MIDI Setup. Navigate to the Menu Bar Window>Audio Devices.

Plug in all your fancy musical instruments.

Click on the + symbol in the Audio Devices window. Clcik on Aggregate Devices on your new item and give a name. We chose Geetars for our bass and electric guitars.

Your instruments and how they are connected to your Mac should show up on the right hand side of the Audio Devices window. Check the Use box next to the connections of your instruments. We utilized the Built-in Input for the guitar and an XLR to USB converter called the CEntrance MicPort Pro for our bass.

Launch GarageBand and head on over to GarageBand>Preferences. Click on the Audio/MIDI tab and select your new Audio Input device.

Head up to the Menu Bar and select Track > Enable Multitrack Recording.

In your project, create Real Instrument tracks for your instruments. Don’t bother with Electric Guitar track, it won’t work.

Select each track and click on the i in the lower right hand corner. From there you can select the Input Source for each track.

You can connect up to eight instruments like this. That’s half of the Arcade Fire connected to one Mac.

Write Your Lyrics in GarageBand with Notes

While you’re recording your awesome new single, you can finally have your lyrics right in front of you on the screen instead of scribbled on that Taco Bell napkin or in another application that stops you from interfacing with GarageBand. Just head on over to the Menu Bar and select Window>Notepad.

Smaller GarageBand Project Files

If you’re sharing your project files with band mates over the Internet, sending the larger files can be a huge pain. Thankfully Apple has used some magical Pixies’ dust and made those files smaller.

New artist lessons include Tom Sawyer by Rush and Soul Meets Body by Death Cab for Cutie

Whether you’re into Prog rock or Indie, you should be happy with the new lessons available in GarageBand. Apple says we can expect more. Hopefully they’re right, and hopefully one of them is Prince. Seriously, how rad would it be to have Prince teach you Purple Rain?

Pretty darn rad.

Magic GarageBand Got Easier

Magic GarageBand was a pain to use before. You’d click on an instrument and maybe a few minutes later, it would switch over. Now the instruments switch over at the beginning of the next measure. It just seems more

iPad and iPhone as MIDI Controllers

Using Wi-Fi you can setup your iPad, iPod touch, or iPhone as a MIDI device if you have an app installed that utilizes OSC.

This is especially helpful if you want to play the piano but hate the keyboard version in GarageBand and you don’t have the money to go out and buy a MIDI keyboard for a few projects.

The apps will need an OSC server on your Mac. Some apps work with Pure Data, while others work best with OSCulator. Either way, you’ll be controlling GarageBand with your iPad or iPhone from across the room.

Awesome!

If you’re feeling like Wi-Fi just won’t cut it, Line 6 has the MIDI Mobilizer dock accessory.

Scoring

Feeling a little Mozart?

Add a Software Instrument. Play your song then click on the Scissors/edit button in the lower left hand corner. Then click on the score button. Now you can adjust the score of your masterpiece.

Select and drag your notes or Command+click to add new notes.

Adjust Audio in your Videos

Flex Time isn’t just for music.

In the Menu Bar go to Track > Show Movie Track

Open the Media Browser and click on the Movies tab. Grab one of your videos and drop it into the movie track.

Click on the edit Scissors at the bottom left of the GarageBand window and now you can stretch out the audio of your movie with Flex Time.

Just like your music, you can extend the length of your movie’s audio, including your dialogue. Yeah, it’s fun to make your words last 20 seconds. Especially if it’s a voice over. Besides the fun factor, this can be helpful for ADR that’s already tied to a video you have.

GarageBand

Creating a Project:

You start working in GarageBand by creating a new project.

To create a new project:

1. Choose File > New.
2. In the New Project dialog, select the type of project you want to create.
3. In the dialog that appears, browse to the location where you want to store the project, then type a name for the project in the Name field.
4. Set the project’s tempo, key, and time signature as described in the following sections.
5. When you have finished making the project settings, click Create.

Setting the Tempo:

Each project has a speed, or tempo. The tempo defines the rate at which beats, the
basic rhythmic pulse, occur in the project. The tempo is measured in beats per minute,
or bpm. You can set the tempo to any speed between 60 and 240 bpm.
The default tempo is 120 bpm, which is a common tempo used in popular music.

To set the tempo:

In the New Project dialog, drag the Tempo slider left to slow down the tempo, or right
to speed up the tempo.

Note: You can change the tempo later in the time display, located below the timeline,
or in the Track Info pane for the master track.

Setting the Key:

Each project has a key, which defines the central note to which the other notes in the
music relate, and the scale used (either “major” or “minor”).

To set the key:

1. In the New Project dialog, choose a key from the Key pop-up menu.
2. Choose the scale from the Scale pop-up menu to the right of the Key pop-up menu.

Note: You can change the key later in the Track Info pane for the master track.
If you change the key of a project after recording instruments or adding loops, all
Software Instrument recordings and loops are transposed to the new key. Real
Instrument recordings are not transposed.

Setting the Time Signature:

Each project also has a time signature, which controls the relationship between beats
and measures. A project’s time signature consists of two numbers separated by a
forward slash, which look similar to a fraction. The number on the left controls the
number of beats in each measure, and the number on the right controls the beat value
(the length of the note that gets one beat).

You can use any of the following time signatures in a GarageBand project:

  • 2/2, 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 5/4, 7/4, 6/8, 7/8, 9/8, or 12/8.

The default is 4/4, the most commonly used time signature.

To set the time signature:

In the New Project dialog, choose a time signature from the Time pop-up menu.

Note: You can change the time signature later in the Track Info pane for the
master track.


Opening an Existing Project:

You can open an existing project to continue working.

To open an existing project:

Choose File > Open, locate and select the project you want to open, then click OK.

You can also open a recently open project by choosing File > Open Recent and
choosing a project from the submenu.

If you close the currently open project, a dialog appears, asking if you want to create a
new project or open an existing project.


Saving a Project:

As you work, it’s important to save your project often so you don’t lose your changes.

To save a project:

Choose File > Save (or press Command-S).

When you save a project, by default GarageBand creates an iLife preview that is saved
with the project. An iLife preview lets you preview the project in the Media Browser
and in other iLife applications, but can increase the project’s file size. You can select
whether to create an iLife preview for projects in the General pane of GarageBand
Preferences.

You can also save a project as an archive. When you save a project as an archive, all the
audio files, loops, and other media the project uses are saved in the project file. This is
especially useful if you want to copy the project to another computer, or are
duplicating a project with your own Real Instrument recordings.

To save a project as an archive:

1. Choose File > Save as.
2. In the Save As dialog, select the Save As Archive checkbox.

You can also compact projects to make sharing easier.
Compacting a project reduces the file size by compressing audio in the project.
Compacting can result in some loss of audio quality.

To compact a project:

1. Choose File > Save as.
2. In the Save As dialog, select the Compact Project checkbox.
3. Choose the compression settings you want to use from the pop-up menu next to the Compact Project checkbox.

Sending a Project to iTunes:

You can send a project to an iTunes playlist, then play your exported projects in iTunes, download them to an iPod, or burn the playlist to a CD.
Files are exported to iTunes in AIFF format. You can convert the exported file to another format, such as AAC or MP3, from within iTunes.

To send a project to an iTunes playlist:

  • Choose Share > Send to iTunes.

The entire project, from the beginning (measure 1) to the end of the last region, is exported.

You can set the name of the iTunes playlist to which files will be exported, and also set
the name of the album and composer, in the Export pane of GarageBand Preferences.

You can also export a single track, or a group of tracks, to an iTunes playlist.
To export a single track, solo the track (or mute all other tracks) before exporting.
To export a group of tracks, solo the tracks (or mute all other tracks) before exporting.

What Is Mixing?

When you’ve built the arrangement of your project, the next step is to mix the project.
Mixing is where you step back and listen to the overall sound of the music, and make
changes to tracks and the project to balance the different parts, bring the music into
focus, and give it the right “sound.”

Mixing typically consists of the following steps:

  • Balancing volume levels
  • Setting pan positions
  • Creating dynamic changes with volume and pan curves
  • Shaping the music with effects

Setting Track Volume Levels:

The instruments and loops you use in your project may have different volume
(loudness) levels. In order to hear all the parts you’ve added, you balance the volume
levels so that no track overwhelms the others, and no track is lost in the mix.

This doesn’t mean that every track should be set to the same volume level. In
commercial mixes, certain tracks (typically the lead vocals, drums, and lead or solo
instruments) are louder, while other tracks (the backing instruments and vocals) are
softer.

To set track volume levels:

  • For each track, drag the volume slider left to lower the volume level, or drag it right to raise the volume level

Setting Track Pan Position:

Setting different tracks to different positions in the stereo field (panning) helps make it
easier to distinguish each track in the mix, and create a sense of three-dimensional
space to your project.

In commercial music, the most important tracks (typically the lead vocals, drums, and
lead or solo instruments) are panned to the center or close to center, while other tracks
(the backing instruments and vocals) are panned left and right. Panning tracks no
farther than 50 percent left or right creates a natural sense of space, while panning
tracks to the extreme left or right creates a more unusual, artificial sound.

To set track pan positions:

  • For each track, drag the pan dial left to pan the track farther to the left, or drag it right to pan the track farther to the right. You can also click along the edge of the dial to set it to a specific position.

Using Volume and Pan Curves:

In addition to setting track volume and pan, you can add volume and pan changes
over time using volume curves and pan curves. Making changes over time is called
automation, and GarageBand lets you automate volume and pan changes for each
track.

To turn on a track’s volume or pan curve:

1. Click the triangle to the right of the Solo button in the track’s header.
A blank row for the track’s volume and pan curves appears below the track.
2. From the pop-up menu on the left side of the row, choose Track Volume or Track Pan.

Once you turn on a track’s volume or pan curve, you make changes by adding control
points to the curve, then dragging the control points to change the value for volume or
pan at that point in time.

To add a control point:

  • Click the line in the editor at the point in time where you want to add a control point.

To adjust a control point, do one of the following:

  • Drag the control point up or down to a new value.
  • Drag the control point left or right to move it to a different point in time.

You can use the vertical lines in the row to line control points up with measures and
beats in the timeline.

Setting the Output Volume:

You can set the output volume of a project using the master volume slider, located
below the lower-right corner of the timeline. You should adjust the output volume to a
level high enough to eliminate background noise, but not high enough to cause
clipping.

The master volume slider controls the volume of the project when it is exported. Use
your computer’s volume control to adjust the volume at which you listen to the project
play.

To set the master volume:

  • Drag the master volume slider left to lower the output volume, or right to raise the output volume. Option-click the slider to return it to a neutral value (0 dB gain).
  • As the project plays, watch the master level meters located above the master volume slider. Before you export a project, make sure the small red dots to the right of the level meters are not lit. These dots (called clipping indicators) light to show that the volume level of the project at some point is too high, which will cause distortion or “clipping” in the exported project.

Adding Fade Ins and Fade Outs:

A very common mixing technique is to add a fade in at the beginning of a project, and
a fade out at the end of the project. Fade ins make the music seem to “come out of
nowhere,” and fade outs create the feeling that the project continues playing. You can
easily add fade ins and fade outs to your projects, and add other volume changes to
the project over time.

To add a fade in:

1. Choose Track > Show Master Track.
The master track appears at the bottom of the timeline.
2. From the pop-up menu in the master track’s header, choose Master Volume.
The master volume curve appears in the master track.
3. Click the master volume curve at the point you want the fade in to end.
4. Drag the control point at the beginning of the master track down to the volume level
at which you want the fade in to start. To start with complete silence, drag it all the way down.

Now play the project from the beginning. You’ll hear all the tracks in the project fade in gradually to their final volume level.

To add a fade out:

1. Choose Track > Show Master Track.
The master track appears at the bottom of the timeline.
2. From the pop-up menu in the master track’s header, choose Master Volume.
The master volume curve appears in the master track.
3. Click the master volume curve at the point you want the fade out to begin, then click
at the point you want the fade out to end.
4. Drag the second control point down to the volume level at which you want the fade
out to end. To end with complete silence, drag it all the way down.

Now play the project from a point before the fade out begins. You’ll hear all the tracks
in the project fade out gradually to their final volume level.


Transposing Part of a Project to a Different Key:

Many projects move to different keys at some point in the project; they may stay in the
new key, or return to the original key at a later point in time. You can move an entire
project to a new key, called transposing (or modulating), in the project’s master track.

To transpose part of a project to a different key:

1. Choose Track > Show Master Track.
The master track appears at the bottom of the timeline.
2. From the pop-up menu in the master track’s header, choose Master Pitch.
The master pitch curve appears in the master track.
3. Click the box to the left of the words “Master Pitch” to turn on the master pitch curve.
4. Click the master pitch curve at the point you want to change the pitch of the project.
5. Drag the control point up or down to the new key. Unlike with volume and pan curves, the control points on the master pitch curve move in discrete steps of a semitone.

Note: When you transpose a project to a new key, Real and Software Instruments (both
those you’ve recorded and loops) are transposed. Any audio files added from the Finder
are not transposed.

Using Effects:

Effects let you shape and enhance the sound of your music in a variety of ways. Anyone
who’s listened to popular music on the radio, or listened to the soundtrack of a movie,
has heard the different effects used in contemporary music.
GarageBand includes a complete set of studio-quality effects that you can use on individual tracks or the overall project to shape the sound of your music.

GarageBand includes the following types of effects:

Equalization (EQ): EQ is a powerful and versatile effect that lets you change the level
of selected frequencies. You can use EQ to make both subtle and dramatic changes to
your projects. EQ is likely the most commonly used effect in popular music.

Dynamics: Dynamics effects, which include compressors and noise gates, let you
control the volume of your music over time.
Reverb and Echo: Reverb and echo are both time-based effects. Time-based effects
store a copy of the sound and play it back at a later point in time, creating a sense of
space.

Modulation: Modulation effects, which include chorus, flangers, and phasers, build on
the time-based effects by shifting or modulating when the copied signal plays back.
They can also involve detuning the copied signal relative to the original.
Distortion: Distortion effects, which include amp simulation and overdrive (and, of
course, distortion!), change the tone of the original sound to recreate analog or digital
distortion.

Other effects: Other effects included with GarageBand, such as tremolo and Auto
Filter, change the sound in different ways.

Adding Effects:

Each Real and Software Instrument track has a set of effects, which include a
compressor, equalizer (EQ), echo, and reverb. You can adjust a track’s effects, and add
up to two additional effects, in the Track Info pane. Real Instrument tracks also include
a noise gate effect.

The master track includes its own effects. You can adjust the master effects and add
one additional effect to the master track in the Track Info pane.

To add an effect:

1. Click the Track Info button (the letter “i”) or choose Track > Show Track Info to show the
Track Info pane.
2. If needed, click the Details triangle to show the Effects section of the window.
3. Choose the effect you want to add from one of the pop-up menus along the left.
Instrument tracks have two effect pop-up menus, and the master track has one.

Adjusting Effects:

Each effect has either a slider that you can use to adjust the amount of the effect, or a
pop-up menu from which you can choose different effect presets.

To adjust a track’s effects:

1. Select the track, then click the Track Info button to open the Track Info pane.
2. Click the Details triangle to reveal the track’s effects settings.
3. Drag the sliders for the Gate, Compressor, Echo, and Reverb effects to adjust the
amount of each effect. Choose a new setting from the Equalizer pop-up menu to adjust
the equalization. If your project is playing, you hear the changes in real time.
4. Choose an effect from one of the effect pop-up menus on the left, then choose an
effect setting for the effect from the preset pop-up menu on the right.

Additional effects you can add include treble reduction, bass reduction, amp
simulation, chorus, flanging, phase shifting, and tremolo.


Turning Effects On and Off:

You can turn individual effects on or off (turning an effect off temporarily is called
bypassing the effect). This has several advantages: It lets you hear how each effect
changes the sound of your music, and lets you see which effects have the greatest
impact on your computer’s performance.

When you turn off an effect, the effect’s current settings are retained, so any
adjustments you have made are not lost.

To turn an effect off:

  • In the Effects section of the Track Info pane, deselect the checkbox next to the effect. Select the checkbox to turn the effect on again.

Choosing Effect Presets:

Some effects includes several presets, which let you easily adjust the effect’s settings to achieve a particular sound.

To choose an effect preset:

  • Choose the preset you want from the pop-up menu to the right of the effect.

Editing Effect Presets:

You can adjust effect presets to fine tune the sound of the effect, and save your own
presets to use with other instruments or in another project.

To edit an effect preset:

1. Click the Edit button (with the pencil icon) to the right of the effect’s preset pop-up
menu.

The effect’s Preset window appears. Each preset setting has a slider, button, or other
control, which is labeled to indicate its purpose.

2. Drag the sliders in the Preset window to adjust the settings for the preset.

When you adjust an effect preset, it appears as “Manual” in the pop-up menu, so you
know you’ve changed it from the original preset. You can go back and forth between
your Manual settings and other presets to compare them before saving the new preset.

Saving Effect Presets:

You can create your own effect presets and save them to use on another track or in
another project.

To save an effect preset:

1. Adjust the settings for the preset to get the sound that you want.
2. Choose Make Preset from the pop-up menu, then type a name for the preset in the Save dialog.

The Editor:

The editor is like a microscope showing a close-up view of part of a track.
You can edit Real and Software Instrument regions in a variety of ways in the editor.

For Real Instruments:

When you select a Real Instrument track, the editor shows the waveform of the track or selected region.
You can move, crop, join, transpose, and rename regions in the editor.


A – Region Name field: Type a new name for the selected region in the field.

B – Region Pitch slider and field: Drag the slider to transpose the selected Real Instrument region up or down by up to 12 semitones.
You can also type the number of semitones in the field.

C – Zoom slider: Drag to zoom in for a closer view or to zoom out to see more of the track or selected region.
Zooming in the editor is independent of the timeline.

D – Beat ruler: Shows beats and measures for the area visible in the editor.

E – Playhead: Shows the point in the project currently playing.

F – Waveform display: Shows the waveform of the regions in the track.

G – Enhance Tuning slider and checkbox: Drag right to increase the amount of tuning enhancement, or drag left to lower the amount.
The limit to key checkbox limits tuning enhancement to the project’s key.

H – Enhance Timing slider and pop-up menu: Drag right to increase the amount of timing enhancement, or drag left to lower the amount.
Choose the note value to use and the basis for timing enhancement from the pop-up menu.

I – Scroll bar: Drag the scroller to move to a different part of the track.

For Software Instruments—Graphic View:

When you select a Software Instrument track, the editor shows a graphic display of the track or selected region.
You can edit individual notes in Software Instrument regions, fix the timing of notes, and transpose and rename regions.
You can also show and edit controller data for pitch bend, a modulation wheel, or a sustain pedal, recorded when you play your music keyboard.

A – Region Name field: Type a new name for the selected region in the field.

B – Region Pitch slider and field: Drag the slider to transpose the selected Software Instrument region up or down by up to 36 semitones.
You can also type the number of semitones in the field.

C -Velocity slider and field: Drag the slider to change the velocity of selected notes.
You can also type the velocity value in the field. A note’s velocity reflects how hard the key is pressed when you play the note.

D – Zoom slider: Drag to zoom in for a closer view or to zoom out to see more of the track.

E – Graphic/Notation View buttons: Click to change the editor to graphic view or notation view.

F – Display pop-up menu: Choose whether to show notes or controller data in the editor.

G – Fix Timing button: Click to fix the timing of notes in the selected region, or notes selected in the editor, so that notes move to the nearest grid position.

H – Beat ruler: Shows beats and measures for the area visible in the editor.

I – Playhead: Shows the point in the project currently playing.

J – Notes/controller data display: Shows the individual notes of Software Instrument regions in a graphic format.
You can move and resize notes to adjust their pitch, where they start playing, and how long they play.
Shows controller data when chosen in the Display pop-up menu.

K – Scroll bar: Drag the scroller to move to a different part of a track.

For Software Instruments—Notation View:

You can also view Software Instrument tracks and regions in notation view.
In notation view, notes and other musical events are shown in standard music notation.
You can edit notes and edit controller information (including velocity and pedal markings for sustain) in notation view.

A – Region Name field: Type a new name for the selected region in the field.

B – Region Pitch slider and field: Drag the slider to transpose the selected Software Instrument region up or down by up to 36 semitones.
You can also type the number of semitones in the field.

C – Velocity slider and field: Drag the slider to change the velocity of selected notes.
You can also type the velocity value in the field.
A note’s velocity reflects how hard the key is pressed when you play the note.

D – Zoom slider: Drag to zoom in for a closer view or to zoom out to see more of the track.

E – Graphic/Notation View buttons: Click to change the editor to graphic view or notation view.

F – Note Value button: Click to choose the note value for notes you add.

G – Fix Timing button: Click to fix the timing of notes in the selected region, or notes selected in the editor, so that notes move to the nearest grid position.

H – Beat ruler: Shows beats and measures for the area visible in the editor.

I – Playhead: Shows the point in the project currently playing.

J – Notation display: Shows the musical events of Software Instrument regions in standard music notation.
You can move notes to adjust their pitch and where they start playing, and change how long they play.

K – Scroll bar: Drag the scroller to move to a different part of a track.

For Podcasts and Video—Marker View:

When you are working on a podcast episode, you can view and edit markers in the editor.
In the marker list you can edit each marker’s time position, marker region artwork, URL, URL title, and chapter title.
You can also add episode artwork in the editor.


A – Preview: (Appears only when creating a podcast.)

B – Marks a Chapter checkbox: Shows whether the selected marker marks a chapter.

  • Displays Artwork checkbox: Shows whether the selected marker contains marker region artwork. (Appears only when creating a podcast.)
  • Displays URL checkbox: Shows whether the selected marker has a URL.

C – Add Marker button: Add a marker at the playhead position.

D – Marker list: Shows each marker’s start time, artwork (for podcasts) or video frame (for videos), chapter title, URL, and URL title.

E – Time column: Shows the start time for each marker.

F – Artwork column: Shows the artwork for each marker region.
Add artwork by dragging image files from the Media Browser. (Appears only when creating a podcast.)

  • Still Frame column: Shows the video frame at the position of each marker. (Appears only when working with a video.)

G – Chapter Title column: Shows the title of each chapter marker. Click and type a title for a marker.

H – URL Title column: Shows the title of each marker region’s URL. Click and type a title for the URL.

I – URL column: Shows the URL for each marker region. Type a URL (address) for the website for which you want to show a link.

Selecting Regions:

In order to edit a region in the editor, you first select the region in the timeline.

To select a region, do one of the following:

  • Select a single region by clicking it.
  • Select multiple regions by Shift-clicking.
  • Drag from a point before the first region to a point after the last one to select the regions in between.

Editing Real Instrument Regions:

You can edit Real Instrument regions in the editor in several ways.

You can:

  • Move regions
  • Crop part of a region
  • Join regions
  • Enhance the tuning of single-note (monophonic) regions
  • Enhance the timing of regions

The editor includes its own grid, which you can set independently of the grid for the timeline, using the Grid button in the upper-right corner of the editor.

Moving Real Instrument Regions:

You can move Real Instrument regions in the editor in order to align them precisely with measures and beats, or with other regions.

To move a Real Instrument region in the editor:

1. Move the pointer over the top part of the region, close to the beat ruler.
The pointer becomes a move pointer (a vertical line with arrows pointing left and right).
2. Drag the region to its new position.

Cropping Part of a Real Instrument Region:

You can easily cut part of a Real Instrument region, whether at the beginning, the end, or in the middle of the region.
This is especially useful if you want to delete, move, or copy an individual note, chord, or phrase in a region.

To crop part of a Real Instrument region:

1. Move the pointer over the place where you want to cut the region (except at the top).
The pointer becomes a crop pointer (a crosshair).
2. Drag to select the part of the region you want to crop.
The selected part of the region appears darker blue.
3. Click the selected part of the region.
4. The selected part is cropped from the rest of the region, and is now a separate region.
You can select it, delete it, move it, or copy it, just as you would any Real Instrument region.

Joining Real Instrument Regions:

You can join Real Instrument regions that are next to each other in the editor.

To join regions:

  • Select the regions, then choose Edit > Join (or press Command-J).

Enhancing the Tuning of Real Instrument Tracks:

You can enhance the tuning of a Real Instrument track.
This is especially useful when you record Real Instrument regions that have the right “feel” and timing but are not perfectly in tune.

When you use the Enhance Tuning slider, all regions on the selected track (both your own recordings and loops) are enhanced.
Enhance Tuning can only produce accurate results on single-note (monophonic) Real Instrument regions, so be sure the track does not include regions with chords or unpitched sounds.

By default, Enhance Tuning enhances the tuning of notes by moving them to the closest note in the project’s key.

You can limit the enhancement to the notes of the chromatic scale instead by deselecting the “Limit to key” checkbox.

To enhance the tuning of a Real Instrument track:

1. In the timeline, select the Real Instrument track you want to enhance.
2. Drag the Enhance Tuning slider right to increase the amount of tuning enhancement, or drag it left to decrease the amount of enhancement.
3. To limit tuning enhancement to the chromatic scale, deselect the “Limit to key” checkbox below the slider.

You hear the results immediately as the project plays.

Setting the Enhance Tuning slider to higher values can sometimes lead to undesirable results.
Listen carefully to the results of using the slider and set it to the value that sounds best.


Enhancing the Timing of Real Instrument Tracks
:

You can enhance the timing of a Real Instrument track.
This is especially useful when you record Real Instrument regions where the notes are the right pitch, but are not perfectly in time with the project.

When you use the Enhance Timing slider, all regions on the selected track (both your own recordings and loops) are enhanced.
You can enhance the timing of single-note, chordal, and percussion (unpitched) Real Instrument regions.
Enhance Timing works better with regions that contain distinct patterns of notes than with pads or ambient sounds.

To enhance the timing of a Real Instrument track:

1. In the timeline, select the Real Instrument region you want to enhance.
2. Drag the Enhance Timing slider to the right to increase the amount of timing enhancement, or drag it left to decrease the amount of enhancement.

If you move the Enhance Timing slider while the project is playing, it may take a moment for it to “catch up” with the music.

The Enhance Timing slider may not work equally well with all musical material, especially when set to higher values.

Listen carefully to the results of using the slider and set it to the value that sounds best.

Editing Software Instrument Regions:

You can edit Software Instrument regions in the editor in several ways.

You can:

  • Edit individual notes (including the note’s pitch, duration, and timing)
  • Edit controller information (including velocity, mod wheel, pitch bend, and sustain)


Editing Notes in a Software Instrument Region:

You can edit individual notes of a Software Instrument region.

When you view the region in the editor, individual notes in the region are displayed in a graphic format:

  • The left edge of the note shows the point in the timeline it starts playing.
  • The width of the note shows how long it plays.
  • The vertical position of the note shows its pitch, in relation to the piano keyboard displayed vertically along the left edge of the editor.

You can drag notes to a new starting point, resize notes to shorten or lengthen how long they play, and drag notes up or down to a different pitch.
You can also select multiple notes and edit them at the same time.

Note: To edit notes in the editor, you may need to zoom in so that the notes are large
enough to select and edit.

To edit notes in a Software Instrument region:

  • Drag the note left or right to a new starting point. You can use the beat ruler in the editor to align the note with a specific beat or measure.
  • Drag the lower-right corner of the note to resize it.
  • Drag the note up or down to raise or lower its pitch. Use the piano keyboard along the left edge of the editor to see the pitches.

You can also select multiple notes in the editor, and edit them at the same time.

To select multiple notes:

  • Shift-click or Command-click the notes you want to select.
  • Drag from a point before the first note to a point after the last note, enclosing the notes you want to select.

When you edit multiple notes, each note is changed by the same amount.

For example, if you select several notes and drag them to a new starting point, each note is moved by the same number of beats.
If you resize several notes at the same time, each note is shortened or lengthened by the same amount. If you drag several notes up or down to a different pitch, each note is changed by the same number of semitones.

You can also fix the timing of individual notes in the editor.
When you fix the timing of notes in the editor, the selected notes move to the nearest grid position, as set in the timeline grid menu in the upper-right corner of the editor.

To fix the timing of individual notes:

  • Select the notes you want to fix in the editor, then click the Fix Timing button (with the text “Align to” followed by a note value).


Editing Controller Information in a Software Instrument Region:

Most music keyboards designed to be used with computer music programs include “controllers” for pitch bend and modulation.
These controllers are often circular “wheels” placed at the left end of the keyboard. Some keyboards also include other controllers, such as a sustain pedal, a foot controller, or an expression control.

Moving the pitch bend wheel while you play causes the notes you play to bend up or down in pitch, like a guitar.
Moving the modulation wheel creates changes in the sound of the Software Instrument.
The changes are different for different instruments, but often involve changing the frequency, rate, or intensity of a filter applied to the instrument.

If you move a controller while recording a Software Instrument, the movements are recorded in the Software Instrument region.
You can see the movements you recorded and edit them in the editor.

To display controller information for a Software Instrument region:

1. Double-click the region to open it in the editor.
2. Choose the type of controller information you want to see from the Display pop-up menu.

Controller information is displayed as a line with “dots” at different points in time, similar to the way volume and pan curves are displayed in the timeline.
Each “dot” (called a control point) shows a change in value (in this case the movements of the controller) at that point in time.
You can edit the controller information by adding new control points, and by adjusting control points to change their value or to change where in the timeline they occur.

To add a control point:

  • Click the line in the editor at the point where you want to add a control point.

To adjust a control point, do one of the following:

  • Drag the control point up or down to a new value.
  • Drag the control point left or right to move it to a different point in time.

You can also view and edit Software Instrument regions in notation view in the editor.

 

Connecting Music Equipment

Connecting a Musical Instrument or Microphone:

You can connect an electric musical instrument or microphone to your computer and
record it in a Real Instrument track.

You can connect a microphone to your computer using the computer’s audio input
port, if your computer has one. You can also connect an audio interface to your
computer, then connect instruments and microphones to the audio interface for
recording. Audio interfaces are available in a variety of compatible formats, including
USB, FireWire, PCI, and PC card formats. You can also connect an audio mixer or console
to your computer, and record microphones or instruments through the mixer.

If you use an audio interface to connect musical instruments, check the manufacturer’s
specifications to make sure the interface is compatible with Mac OS X 10.2.6 or later.
Also make sure the audio interface uses a format supported by your computer. Follow
the manufacturer’s instructions, which may include installing the correct driver on your
computer.

If you connect an instrument or microphone to your computer’s audio input port, open
System Preferences, click the button for Sound preferences, click the Input tab in the
Sound pane, select Line In in the sound input list, then drag the Input volume slider to
set the input level.

Connecting a Music Keyboard to Your Computer:

If you play a keyboard instrument, you can connect a MIDI-compatible music keyboard
to your computer to play and record Software Instruments.

To connect a music keyboard to play Software Instruments:

  • If the keyboard is a USB MIDI keyboard, connect the USB cable to the keyboard and to your computer.
  • If the keyboard is a standard MIDI keyboard, connect the keyboard to a MIDI interface using standard MIDI cables, and connect the interface to your computer.

Be sure to follow the instructions that came with the keyboard, which may include
installing the correct driver on your computer.

Connecting Other Music Equipment:

You may also want to connect speakers or monitors to your computer to hear your
projects play back with greater audio quality than possible from your computer’s
speaker. A variety of monitors and speakers are available, including speakers you can
connect directly to your computer’s audio out port, through a USB port, or using an
audio interface.

If you connect an audio interface to your computer, you set the audio interface as the
audio input device for GarageBand. Before setting the audio input device, be sure to
install any necessary driver software for the audio interface.

To set an audio interface as the audio input device:

1. Choose GarageBand > Preferences, then click Audio/MIDI.
2. In the Audio/MIDI pane, choose the audio interface from the Audio Input pop-up
menu.

If you connect a microphone, an instrument, or other audio device directly to your
computer’s audio input port, you set may need to configure input settings for it in the
Sound pane of System Preferences.

To configure input settings in System Preferences:

1. Choose Apple () > System Preferences, then click Sound.
2. In the Sound pane, click the Input button.
3. Select Line In from the sound input devices list, then drag the Input volume slider to
set the input level.

Creating Musical Score

Sending an iMovie Project to GarageBand:

You can send an iMovie project from iMovie to GarageBand. When you send an iMovie
project, GarageBand opens and a new project is created that contains the iMovie
project. If GarageBand is already open, the current project closes before the new
project is created.

To send an iMovie project from iMovie to GarageBand:

  • In iMovie, choose Share > GarageBand.


Importing a Video File From the Media Browser:

You can import an iMovie project or other video file from the Media Browser. The
Media Browser lets you quickly locate iMovie projects and other video files in your
computer’s Movies folder, as well as other media files.
You can search for files by name, and preview video files before you add them to your GarageBand project.

To open the Media Browser, do one of the following:

  • Choose Control > Show Media Browser.
  • Click the Media Browser button (next to the Track Info button).

The Media Browser contains buttons for different types of media files, a browser where
you can navigate to the media files you want to use, and a media list showing the
media files in the current location. You can preview movies in the Media Browser to
find the one you want to work with in GarageBand. Once you find the movie you want
to work with, you drag it to the timeline to import it into the project.

To find video files using the Media Browser:

1. Click the Movies button.
2. Navigate to the folder containing the movie you want to use.
3. Optionally, you can also search for movies by name by typing in the search field.

To preview a video file in the Media Browser, do one of the following:

  • Select the file in the media list, then click the Play button at the bottom of the Media Browser.
  • Double-click the file in the media list.

The movie icon becomes a small preview of the movie.

To stop preview playback, do one of the following:

  • Click the Play button at the bottom of the Media Browser.
  • Select another video file.

To import a video file:

  • Drag the video file from the Media Browser to the timeline.

The video file appears in the video track, beginning at the start of the project.
You can’t change the position of the video in a project.

Note: A project can contain only one video file. If you import a video file into a project
that already contains one, a dialog appears asking if you want to replace the existing
video with the new one.

The Media Browser shows the movies in your Movies folder. You can add other folders
to the Media Browser so you can add media files in the folders to your projects.

To add a folder to the Media Browser:

  • Drag the folder from the Finder to the middle area of the Media Browser.


Viewing the Video:

When you import a video file into a project, the video track appears at the top of the
timeline, showing still frames from the video file. The Track Info pane appears in place
of the Media Browser, with a video preview at the top where you can view the video as
you play the project.

To show the video track and video preview:

  • Choose Track > Show Video Track.

To hide the video track and video preview:

  • Choose Track > Hide Video Track.


Working With the Video’s Audio Track:

If the video contains an audio track, a new Real Instrument track named Video Sound is
created below the video track for the video’s audio. You can edit the Video Sound track
exactly like any Real Instrument track: You can mute or solo it, adjust the volume level
and pan position, and add effects.

Note: If you mute the Video Sound track, the video’s audio will not be included when
you send the movie to iDVD or iWeb or when you export as a QuickTime movie.


Adding and Editing Markers:

You can add markers to a project, and then add URLs and chapter titles to markers.
Markers make it easy to navigate to different parts of the finished movie, and let you
add links to webpages. You can add and edit markers in the editor.

To show marker information in the editor:

  • Select the video track, then choose Control > Show Editor or click the Editor button.

The editor opens. In marker view, the editor contains the marker list, with columns
showing the start time, still video frame, and chapter title for each marker.

To add a marker:

1. Move the playhead to the place where you want to add the marker.
2. Click the Add Marker button at the bottom of the editor.

In the editor, the time position where you added the marker appears in the Time
column, and the frame of the video at that position appears in the Still Frame column.


Adding a URL to a Marker:

You can add a URL to a marker and give the URL a title. When you play the movie in
iTunes, iDVD, or QuickTime Player, the URL appears until the start point of the next
marker. When a user clicks the URL, their web browser opens to the webpage for the
URL.

To add a URL to a marker:

1. In the editor, click the placeholder text in the URL column of the marker’s row, then
type the URL.

The Displays URL checkbox is selected for the marker.

2. In the editor, click the placeholder text in the URL Title column of the marker’s row,
then type the title.

When you add a URL title, the title appears in place of the actual URL when you play
the movie, but clicking the title opens your web browser to the webpage for the URL.


Adding a Chapter Title:

You can add a chapter title to a marker, making it a chapter marker. When you play the
movie in iTunes, iDVD, or QuickTime Player, you can move back and forth between
chapters.

To add a chapter title to a marker:

  • In the editor, select the placeholder text in the Chapter Title column of the marker’srow, then type a new title.

In the time ruler, a yellow diamond appears at the marker’s start position. In the editor,
the Marks a Chapter checkbox is selected.

Sending a Movie to iDVD:

You can send the project containing both video and audio to iDVD so you can burn it
to a DVD disc. Viewers watching the DVD can use the chapter markers in the project to
move to different parts of the movie. URLs and URL titles will not appear in the movie
on DVD.

To send a movie to iDVD:

  • Choose Share > Send Movie to iDVD.

Note: When you send a project to iDVD, no video compression is applied to the
project. In most cases, you’ll want to make these changes in iDVD
.

Sending a Video Podcast to iWeb:

You can send a project containing a video to iWeb as a video podcast, and publish it on
the Internet. When subscribers view the video podcast, they can click a URL to have a
relevant webpage appear in their web browser, and move back and forth between
chapters.

Exporting a Project as a QuickTime Movie:

You can export a project containing a video as a QuickTime movie (.mov). When
you export a project as a movie, the exported movie includes both the video and
the soundtrack you created in GarageBand. The video’s audio is also included unless
the Video Sound track is muted when you export the movie.

To export a project as a QuickTime movie:

  • Choose Share > Export as QuickTime Movie.

The project is exported using the current movie compression settings. Movie
compression settings compress both the video and audio in the exported movie.

You can change the compression settings to suit how you want to use the exported
movie. Compression settings are stored as part of the GarageBand project until you
change them while the project is open.

To choose the video compression settings:

1. Choose GarageBand > Preferences, then click Export.
2. In the Export pane, choose the settings you want to use from the Movie Settings
pop-up menu.

Creating Podcasts

Creating a Podcast Episode:

You can create an enhanced podcast episode in GarageBand using the following steps:

1. Create the podcast audio by recording and adding audio in GarageBand.
2. Apply ducking to backing tracks.
3. Show the podcast track.
4. Add and edit marker regions.
5. Add artwork and/or URLs to marker regions.
6. Add episode artwork.
7. Edit episode information.

When you have created your podcast in GarageBand, you can send it to iWeb or export
it and publish it using another application.

To find audio files in the Media Browser:

1. Choose Control > Media Browser. The Media Browser opens to the right of the timeline.
2. Click the Audio button.
3. In the file area, navigate to the folder containing the audio files you want to use. You
can also search for files by name by typing in the search field.

To preview an audio file in the Media Browser, do one of the following:

  • Select the file in the media list, then click the Play button at the bottom of the Media Browser.
  • Double-click the file in the media list. The audio file starts playing.


To stop preview playback, do one of the following:

  • Click the Play button at the bottom of the Media Browser.
  • Select another audio file.

To import an audio file:

  • Drag the audio file from the Media Browser to the timeline.

You can add other folders to the Media Browser so you can add media files in the folders to your projects.

To add a folder to the Media Browser:

  • Drag the folder from the Finder to the middle area of the Media Browser.

Ducking Backing Tracks:

When you are creating a podcast, you may sometimes want to lower the volume of
backing tracks to hear spoken narration or dialogue more easily. Lowering the volume
of some tracks to make others easier to hear is called “ducking.”

You apply ducking by setting which tracks are lead tracks and which are backing tracks.
Whenever there is sound on a lead track, the volume of the backing tracks is lowered
while the volume of all other tracks stays the same. You can apply ducking to any Real
or Software Instrument track in your podcast.

To make a track a lead track:

1. Choose Control > Ducking.

A ducking control appears in each track’s header, with arrows pointing up and down.

2. Click the upper part of the track’s ducking control (the arrow pointing up).

To make a track a backing track:

1 Choose Control > Ducking.

A ducking control appears in each track’s header, with arrows pointing up and down.

2. Click the lower part of the track’s ducking control (the arrow pointing down).

When you play the project, send it to iWeb, or export it, the backing tracks are ducked
whenever there is sound on any lead track. You can adjust the amount of ducking
(volume reduction) on these tracks using the Ducking Amount slider.

To adjust the amount of ducking:

1. Open the Track Info pane.
2. Click Master Track, then click the Details triangle.
3. Drag the Ducking Amount slider right to increase the amount of ducking, or drag it left to decrease it.

Adding and Editing Markers:

You can add markers to an podcast, making it an enhanced podcast. When you add a
marker to a podcast, it appears in the podcast track as a marker region. Marker regions
show how long the artwork or URLs you add to a marker last, and you can move them
or resize them to change their duration.

To show the podcast track:

  • Choose Track > Show Podcast Track.

The podcast track appears above the other tracks in the timeline, and the editor opens
showing the marker list, with columns for the start time, artwork, chapter title, URL title, and URL for each marker.

Note: A project can have either a podcast track or a video track, but not both. If you try
to show the podcast track for a project that contains a video track, a dialog appears
asking if you want to replace the video track with a podcast track.

To add a marker:

1. Move the playhead to the place where you want to add the marker.
2. Click the Add Marker button.

The marker appears in the editor, and the start time for the marker appears in the Time column in the marker’s row.
The marker also appears as a marker region in the podcast track.
You can edit marker regions just like other regions in the timeline to control when artwork and URLs appear and how long they are visible when you play the podcast.

To move a marker region, do one of the following:

  • In the podcast track, drag the marker region to a new position.
  • In the editor, click the start time for the marker region and enter a new start time.

To resize a marker region:

  • Drag either the left or right edge of the marker region to the point where you want to resize it.

You can’t loop a marker region.

Adding Marker Region Artwork:

You can add artwork to individual marker regions. When you play the podcast, the
marker region artwork appears from the start to the end of the marker region.

To add artwork to a marker region:

1. Open the Media Browser, then click the Photos button.
2. In the Media Browser, locate the artwork you want to add.
3. Drag the artwork from the Media Browser to the Artwork box in the marker’s row in the editor.
You can also drag artwork directly to the podcast track, which adds a new marker region with the artwork.

The artwork appears in the marker region in the podcast track and in the Artwork
column for the region in the editor. The Displays Artwork checkbox is selected.
You can change the artwork for a marker by dragging a new image to the Artwork column in the marker’s row.

Adding a URL to a Marker:

You can add a URL to a marker and give the URL a title. When you play the podcast, the
URL is visible from the start to the end of the marker region. When you click the URL,
your web browser opens and displays the webpage for the URL.

To add a URL to a marker:

1. In the editor, click the placeholder text in the URL column of the marker’s row, then
type the URL.

The Displays URL checkbox is selected for the marker.

2. In the editor, click the placeholder text in the URL Title column of the marker’s row,
then type the title.

When you add a URL title, the title appears in place of the actual URL when you play
the podcast, but clicking the title opens your web browser to the webpage for the URL.


Adding Chapter Titles:

You can add a chapter title to a marker, making it a chapter marker. When you play the
movie in iTunes, iDVD, or QuickTime Player, you can easily move back and forth
between chapters.

To add a chapter title to a marker:

  • In the editor, select the placeholder text in the Chapter Title column of the marker’s row, then type a title.


Deleting Markers:

You can delete a marker if you decide you no longer want it in your podcast.

To delete a marker, do one of the following:

  • In the podcast track, select the marker region, then press the Delete key.
  • In the editor, select the marker in the marker list, then press the Delete key.


Adding Episode Artwork:

You can add episode artwork to the podcast track. When you play the podcast in
iTunes or view it in iWeb, the episode artwork is visible whenever there is no marker
region with its own artwork.

To add episode artwork:

1. In the Media Browser, locate the artwork you want to add.
2. Drag the artwork from the Media Browser to the Episode Artwork well in the editor.

The episode artwork appears in the Episode Artwork well. When you play the podcast,
the episode artwork appears when there is no marker region with artwork.


Editing Artwork:

You can resize and crop both marker region and episode artwork. In the image editor,
you can resize and crop your artwork to show all or part of the original image.

To edit artwork:

1. Double-click artwork in either the Episode Artwork well or the marker list.
The image editor opens, showing the artwork.
2. Drag the size slider to resize the artwork as large or small as you want.
The black square shows what part of the artwork will be displayed when you play the podcast.
3. Drag the artwork so that the part you want to display is within the borders of the
square.
4. You can replace the artwork by dragging a new image to the image editor.
5. When you are finished, click Set.

Editing Episode Information:

Each podcast episode can contain information, including the episode title, author, and
description. An episode can also have a parental advisory, which appears when you
play the podcast in iTunes.

To edit episode information:

1. Select the podcast track.
2. Open the Track Info pane by choosing Track > Show Track Info.
The Track Info pane appears, showing the Episode Info pane.
3. To give the podcast episode a title, click the Title field, then type a title.
4. To add artist information, click the Artist field, then type the artist’s name.
5. Choose a parental advisory from the Parental Advisory pop-up menu.
The choices are “none,” “clean,” and “explicit.” The default is “none.”
6. To include a description of the podcast episode, click the Description field, then type a description.

Creating a Video Podcast Episode:

Creating a video podcast is similar to creating an audio podcast, except that the video
podcast includes a video file and does not include artwork.

You can create an enhanced video podcast episode in GarageBand using the following steps:

1. Send an iMovie project to GarageBand or import a video file from the Media Browser.
2. Create the podcast audio in GarageBand.
3. Apply ducking to backing tracks.
4. Add and edit marker regions.
5. Add URLs and chapter titles.
6. Edit episode information.

When you have created your video podcast in GarageBand, you can send it to iWeb or
export it and publish it using another application.


Sending a Podcast to iWeb:

You can send a podcast to iWeb, where you can publish it as part of a series.

To send a podcast to iWeb:

  • Choose Share > Send Podcast to iWeb.

The entire project, from the beginning to the end of the last region, is exported.


Exporting a Podcast Episode:

You can export a project as a podcast episode, and publish it using another podcasting
application. By default, the Share menu lets you export podcasts to iWeb. If you want
to export podcasts using another application, you can change the menu command to
let you save your podcast episode to disk.

To export a project as a podcast episode:

1. Choose GarageBand > Preferences, then click Export.
2. In the Export pane, select the “Save to Disk” button under Publish Podcast.
3. Close the Preferences window.
4. Choose Share > Export as Podcast.

The file is exported using the current video and audio compression settings.

Mixing and Adding

What Is Mixing?

When you’ve built the arrangement of your project, the next step is to mix the project.
Mixing is where you step back and listen to the overall sound of the music, and make
changes to tracks and the project to balance the different parts, bring the music into
focus, and give it the right “sound.”

Mixing typically consists of the following steps:

  • Balancing volume levels
  • Setting pan positions
  • Creating dynamic changes with volume and pan curves
  • Shaping the music with effects

Setting Track Volume Levels:

The instruments and loops you use in your project may have different volume
(loudness) levels. In order to hear all the parts you’ve added, you balance the volume
levels so that no track overwhelms the others, and no track is lost in the mix.

This doesn’t mean that every track should be set to the same volume level. In
commercial mixes, certain tracks (typically the lead vocals, drums, and lead or solo
instruments) are louder, while other tracks (the backing instruments and vocals) are
softer.

To set track volume levels:

  • For each track, drag the volume slider left to lower the volume level, or drag it right to raise the volume level

Setting Track Pan Position:

Setting different tracks to different positions in the stereo field (panning) helps make it
easier to distinguish each track in the mix, and create a sense of three-dimensional
space to your project.

In commercial music, the most important tracks (typically the lead vocals, drums, and
lead or solo instruments) are panned to the center or close to center, while other tracks
(the backing instruments and vocals) are panned left and right. Panning tracks no
farther than 50 percent left or right creates a natural sense of space, while panning
tracks to the extreme left or right creates a more unusual, artificial sound.

To set track pan positions:

  • For each track, drag the pan dial left to pan the track farther to the left, or drag it right to pan the track farther to the right. You can also click along the edge of the dial to set it to a specific position.

Using Volume and Pan Curves:

In addition to setting track volume and pan, you can add volume and pan changes
over time using volume curves and pan curves. Making changes over time is called
automation, and GarageBand lets you automate volume and pan changes for each
track.

To turn on a track’s volume or pan curve:

1. Click the triangle to the right of the Solo button in the track’s header.
A blank row for the track’s volume and pan curves appears below the track.
2. From the pop-up menu on the left side of the row, choose Track Volume or Track Pan.

Once you turn on a track’s volume or pan curve, you make changes by adding control
points to the curve, then dragging the control points to change the value for volume or
pan at that point in time.

To add a control point:

  • Click the line in the editor at the point in time where you want to add a control point.

To adjust a control point, do one of the following:

  • Drag the control point up or down to a new value.
  • Drag the control point left or right to move it to a different point in time.

You can use the vertical lines in the row to line control points up with measures and
beats in the timeline.

Setting the Output Volume:

You can set the output volume of a project using the master volume slider, located
below the lower-right corner of the timeline. You should adjust the output volume to a
level high enough to eliminate background noise, but not high enough to cause
clipping.

The master volume slider controls the volume of the project when it is exported. Use
your computer’s volume control to adjust the volume at which you listen to the project
play.

To set the master volume:

  • Drag the master volume slider left to lower the output volume, or right to raise the output volume. Option-click the slider to return it to a neutral value (0 dB gain).
  • As the project plays, watch the master level meters located above the master volume slider. Before you export a project, make sure the small red dots to the right of the level meters are not lit. These dots (called clipping indicators) light to show that the volume level of the project at some point is too high, which will cause distortion or “clipping” in the exported project.

Adding Fade Ins and Fade Outs:

A very common mixing technique is to add a fade in at the beginning of a project, and
a fade out at the end of the project. Fade ins make the music seem to “come out of
nowhere,” and fade outs create the feeling that the project continues playing. You can
easily add fade ins and fade outs to your projects, and add other volume changes to
the project over time.

To add a fade in:

1. Choose Track > Show Master Track.
The master track appears at the bottom of the timeline.
2. From the pop-up menu in the master track’s header, choose Master Volume.
The master volume curve appears in the master track.
3. Click the master volume curve at the point you want the fade in to end.
4. Drag the control point at the beginning of the master track down to the volume level
at which you want the fade in to start. To start with complete silence, drag it all the way down.

Now play the project from the beginning. You’ll hear all the tracks in the project fade in gradually to their final volume level.

To add a fade out:

1. Choose Track > Show Master Track.
The master track appears at the bottom of the timeline.
2. From the pop-up menu in the master track’s header, choose Master Volume.
The master volume curve appears in the master track.
3. Click the master volume curve at the point you want the fade out to begin, then click
at the point you want the fade out to end.
4. Drag the second control point down to the volume level at which you want the fade
out to end. To end with complete silence, drag it all the way down.

Now play the project from a point before the fade out begins. You’ll hear all the tracks
in the project fade out gradually to their final volume level.


Transposing Part of a Project to a Different Key:

Many projects move to different keys at some point in the project; they may stay in the
new key, or return to the original key at a later point in time. You can move an entire
project to a new key, called transposing (or modulating), in the project’s master track.

To transpose part of a project to a different key:

1. Choose Track > Show Master Track.
The master track appears at the bottom of the timeline.
2. From the pop-up menu in the master track’s header, choose Master Pitch.
The master pitch curve appears in the master track.
3. Click the box to the left of the words “Master Pitch” to turn on the master pitch curve.
4. Click the master pitch curve at the point you want to change the pitch of the project.
5. Drag the control point up or down to the new key. Unlike with volume and pan curves, the control points on the master pitch curve move in discrete steps of a semitone.

Note: When you transpose a project to a new key, Real and Software Instruments (both
those you’ve recorded and loops) are transposed. Any audio files added from the Finder
are not transposed.

Using Effects:

Effects let you shape and enhance the sound of your music in a variety of ways. Anyone
who’s listened to popular music on the radio, or listened to the soundtrack of a movie,
has heard the different effects used in contemporary music.
GarageBand includes a complete set of studio-quality effects that you can use on individual tracks or the overall project to shape the sound of your music.

GarageBand includes the following types of effects:

Equalization (EQ): EQ is a powerful and versatile effect that lets you change the level
of selected frequencies. You can use EQ to make both subtle and dramatic changes to
your projects. EQ is likely the most commonly used effect in popular music.

Dynamics: Dynamics effects, which include compressors and noise gates, let you
control the volume of your music over time.
Reverb and Echo: Reverb and echo are both time-based effects. Time-based effects
store a copy of the sound and play it back at a later point in time, creating a sense of
space.

Modulation: Modulation effects, which include chorus, flangers, and phasers, build on
the time-based effects by shifting or modulating when the copied signal plays back.
They can also involve detuning the copied signal relative to the original.
Distortion: Distortion effects, which include amp simulation and overdrive (and, of
course, distortion!), change the tone of the original sound to recreate analog or digital
distortion.

Other effects: Other effects included with GarageBand, such as tremolo and Auto
Filter, change the sound in different ways.

Adding Effects:

Each Real and Software Instrument track has a set of effects, which include a
compressor, equalizer (EQ), echo, and reverb. You can adjust a track’s effects, and add
up to two additional effects, in the Track Info pane. Real Instrument tracks also include
a noise gate effect.

The master track includes its own effects. You can adjust the master effects and add
one additional effect to the master track in the Track Info pane.

To add an effect:

1. Click the Track Info button (the letter “i”) or choose Track > Show Track Info to show the
Track Info pane.
2. If needed, click the Details triangle to show the Effects section of the window.
3. Choose the effect you want to add from one of the pop-up menus along the left.
Instrument tracks have two effect pop-up menus, and the master track has one.


Adjusting Effects:

Each effect has either a slider that you can use to adjust the amount of the effect, or a
pop-up menu from which you can choose different effect presets.

To adjust a track’s effects:

1. Select the track, then click the Track Info button to open the Track Info pane.
2. Click the Details triangle to reveal the track’s effects settings.
3. Drag the sliders for the Gate, Compressor, Echo, and Reverb effects to adjust the
amount of each effect. Choose a new setting from the Equalizer pop-up menu to adjust
the equalization. If your project is playing, you hear the changes in real time.
4. Choose an effect from one of the effect pop-up menus on the left, then choose an
effect setting for the effect from the preset pop-up menu on the right.

Additional effects you can add include treble reduction, bass reduction, amp
simulation, chorus, flanging, phase shifting, and tremolo.


Turning Effects On and Off:

You can turn individual effects on or off (turning an effect off temporarily is called
bypassing the effect). This has several advantages: It lets you hear how each effect
changes the sound of your music, and lets you see which effects have the greatest
impact on your computer’s performance.

When you turn off an effect, the effect’s current settings are retained, so any
adjustments you have made are not lost.

To turn an effect off:

  • In the Effects section of the Track Info pane, deselect the checkbox next to the effect. Select the checkbox to turn the effect on again.

Choosing Effect Presets:

Some effects includes several presets, which let you easily adjust the effect’s settings to achieve a particular sound.

To choose an effect preset:

  • Choose the preset you want from the pop-up menu to the right of the effect.

Editing Effect Presets:

You can adjust effect presets to fine tune the sound of the effect, and save your own
presets to use with other instruments or in another project.

To edit an effect preset:

1. Click the Edit button (with the pencil icon) to the right of the effect’s preset pop-up
menu.

The effect’s Preset window appears. Each preset setting has a slider, button, or other
control, which is labeled to indicate its purpose.

2. Drag the sliders in the Preset window to adjust the settings for the preset.

When you adjust an effect preset, it appears as “Manual” in the pop-up menu, so you
know you’ve changed it from the original preset. You can go back and forth between
your Manual settings and other presets to compare them before saving the new preset.

Saving Effect Presets:

You can create your own effect presets and save them to use on another track or in
another project.

To save an effect preset:

1. Adjust the settings for the preset to get the sound that you want.
2. Choose Make Preset from the pop-up menu, then type a name for the preset in the Save dialog.

Notation View

You can view and edit Software Instrument regions in standard music notation format. In notation view, you can edit notes and other musical events, including adding pedal markings.

In addition to the editor’s graphic “piano roll” view, you can view Software Instrument
regions (both those you record and those from loops) in notation view. In notation
view, the notes in a region are shown as musical notes. Notation view includes other
musical symbols such as rests, staves, clef signs, time signatures, key signatures, and
pedal markings.

The following section briefly describes some of these symbols, for users unfamiliar with music notation:

Notes: A musical note has several parts, including the note head and stem. The note head (the round part of the note) indicates the note’s duration (how long the note lasts). Notes of shorter duration (shorter than a quarter note) have flags, and sometimes these notes are joined together by beams. Each note shown below is half as long as the note to its left (from left to right, the notes are: whole note, half note, quarter note, and eighth note).



Rests:
When reading music while playing, it is as important to know the space between notes as the notes themselves. The silences between notes are shown by rests.
Rests, like notes, have different symbols for different lengths of time, and shorter rests use flags.
Each rest shown below is half as long as the rest to its left (from left to right, the rests are half rest, quarter rest, eighth rest, and sixteenth rest).

Staves:
The set of five horizontal lines on which the notes appear is called a staff (the plural is staves). The lines of the staff let you see the pitch of the notes from high to low, like a grid. In notation view, GarageBand always shows two staves, similar to piano notation. This shows a range of three octaves with middle C in the center (between the two staves).
Most instruments and voices except the lowest bass instruments fall in this range.

Clefs: The symbol at the left edge of each staff is called a clef. Clefs indicate the
range of notes the lines of the staff display.
The staves in notation view use the two most common clefs, the treble and bass clef.

Key signs: If the project is in a key other than C, the sharps or flats in the key appear between the clef and the time signature. Sharps are raised a semitone above the natural note (so, for instance, C# is a semitone higher than C), and flats are lowered a semitone (so Bb is a semitone lower than B).
The symbols for sharps and flats are shown below, followed by the “natural” symbol that cancels a sharp or flat.

Bar lines: The vertical lines extending through both staves show the beginning of each measure (measures are also called bars).

In addition to standard music notation symbols, notation view includes the following features to make working easier:

Duration bars: In addition to the musical note itself, each note has a duration bar that graphically displays the note’s duration (the amount of time the note lasts).

Beat guides:
In notation view, the beat ruler not only shows measures and beats,
but also includes beat guides. Beat guides help you see the exact position of notes in
time. A beat guide appears as a small gray circle or dot above each note; when you
move a note, the beat guide moves with it to indicate the note’s position.

To view a Software Instrument region in notation view:

1. In the timeline, select a Software Instrument region.
2. Click the Notation View button (the musical note icon) in the lower-right corner of the editor’s Region area.

In music notation, the position of notes is shown in terms of musical values (note
values). When you play music, you may play some notes slightly off the beat (ahead of
the beat or behind the beat) to achieve different types of feeling. These small
differences are not shown in musical notation.

In notation view, GarageBand shows the position of notes “rounded” to the nearest
note value. You can choose the note value to round the display of notes to from the
timeline grid menu at the upper-right corner of the editor. This does not change how
the note plays; it only changes the display, so that notes slightly out of time are shown
at the intended position.

To choose the note value for notation view:

  • Click the Grid button in the upper-right corner of the editor, then choose a note value from the timeline grid menu.

Editing Notes in Notation View:

You can edit notes and controller information for a Software Instrument region in
notation view, just as you can in graphic view.

You can:

  • Add notes
  • Select notes
  • Move notes in time
  • Cut and copy notes
  • Change the pitch of notes
  • Change the duration of notes
  • Change the velocity of notes
  • Add pedal markings to sustain notes

Adding Notes:

You add a note by choosing the note value for the note, then clicking in the editor.

In notation view, a square Note Value button appears at the upper-right corner of the
Advanced area of the editor. The Note Value button displays a musical note showing
the current note value.

To choose a note value:

  • Click the Note Value button, then choose the note value you want from the menu that appears.

To add a note:

  • In the editor, Command-click at the point you want to add the note.

Selecting Notes:

Before editing notes in notation view, you must first select them.

To select a note:

  • Click the note head (the round part of the note). You can select multiple notes by Shift- clicking or by dragging around the notes to enclose them.

Moving Notes:

You can move notes in time in notation view, in the same way as in the editor’s graphic
view.

To move a note in time:

  • Select the note, then drag it left or right. You can also move selected notes by pressing the Left or Right Arrow keys.

Above each note in the beat ruler is a beat guide. As you move a note, the beat guide
moves to help you see the note’s exact position in time.

Copying Notes:

You can copy notes in notation view.
To copy a note:

  • Option-drag the note head to a new position.

Changing the Pitch of Notes:

You can change the pitch of, or transpose, notes in notation view.

To change the pitch of a note:

  • Select the note, then drag it up or down. You can also change the pitch of selected notes by pressing the Up or Down Arrow keys.

You hear the note’s new pitch as it moves.

Changing the Duration of Notes:

When you select a note, a duration bar for the note appears. You can change the note’s
duration (how long the note lasts) using the duration bar.

To change the duration of a note:

1. Select the note.
2. Drag the right edge of the duration bar left (to shorten the note) or right (to lengthen the note). Duration bars work just like the notes in graphic view.

Deleting Notes:

You can delete notes that you no longer want to include in your project.

To delete a note:

  • Select the note, then press the Delete key.

Changing Note Velocity:

For many Software Instruments, the sound changes depending on the note’s velocity.
You can change the velocity of notes in notation view, in the same way as in graphic
view.

To change a note’s velocity:

  • Select the note, then drag the Velocity slider left (to lower the velocity) or right (to raise the velocity). You can also change a selected note’s velocity by holding down the Command key and dragging the note up or down.

Adding Pedal Down and Pedal Up Symbols:

Music notation for piano and some other instruments includes symbols for the sustain
pedal. When the sustain pedal is down, the instrument sustains all notes until the pedal is released (up).
You can add pedal down and pedal up symbols, which control whether the notes are sustained in GarageBand.

When you add pedal symbols, you can either place the pedal up symbol manually, or
have GarageBand place the pedal up symbol automatically.

To add pedal symbols and place the pedal up symbol manually:

1. Click the Note Value button and choose the pedal symbol from the menu.
2. Hold down the Command key and place the pointer in the editor at the point where
you want the pedal down marker.
3. Press the mouse button.

The pedal down symbol appears at the current position of the pointer:

4. Without releasing the mouse button, drag to the point where you want the pedal up
marker.
5. Release the mouse button.

The pedal up symbol appears at the current position of the pointer:


To add pedal symbols with the pedal up symbol placed automatically:

1. Click the Note Value button and choose the pedal symbol from the menu.
2. Hold down the Command key and place the pointer in the editor at the point where
you want the pedal down marker.
3 Press the mouse button.

The pedal down symbol appears at the current position of the pointer:

4 Release the mouse button.

The pedal up symbol appears at the next sixteenth note after the pedal down symbol.
You can move it to a new position.

To move the pedal up symbol:

1. Click the pedal symbol to select it.
The pedal down and pedal up symbols become green, indicating that they are
selected.
2. Drag the pedal up symbol to its new position, then release the mouse button.

Editor

The editor is like a microscope showing a close-up view of part of a track.
You can edit Real and Software Instrument regions in a variety of ways in the editor.

For Real Instruments:

When you select a Real Instrument track, the editor shows the waveform of the track or selected region.
You can move, crop, join, transpose, and rename regions in the editor.


A – Region Name field: Type a new name for the selected region in the field.

B – Region Pitch slider and field: Drag the slider to transpose the selected Real Instrument region up or down by up to 12 semitones.
You can also type the number of semitones in the field.

C – Zoom slider: Drag to zoom in for a closer view or to zoom out to see more of the track or selected region.
Zooming in the editor is independent of the timeline.

D – Beat ruler: Shows beats and measures for the area visible in the editor.

E – Playhead: Shows the point in the project currently playing.

F – Waveform display: Shows the waveform of the regions in the track.

G – Enhance Tuning slider and checkbox: Drag right to increase the amount of tuning enhancement, or drag left to lower the amount.
The limit to key checkbox limits tuning enhancement to the project’s key.

H – Enhance Timing slider and pop-up menu: Drag right to increase the amount of timing enhancement, or drag left to lower the amount.
Choose the note value to use and the basis for timing enhancement from the pop-up menu.

I – Scroll bar: Drag the scroller to move to a different part of the track.

For Software Instruments—Graphic View:

When you select a Software Instrument track, the editor shows a graphic display of the track or selected region.
You can edit individual notes in Software Instrument regions, fix the timing of notes, and transpose and rename regions.
You can also show and edit controller data for pitch bend, a modulation wheel, or a sustain pedal, recorded when you play your music keyboard.

A – Region Name field: Type a new name for the selected region in the field.

B – Region Pitch slider and field: Drag the slider to transpose the selected Software Instrument region up or down by up to 36 semitones.
You can also type the number of semitones in the field.

C -Velocity slider and field: Drag the slider to change the velocity of selected notes.
You can also type the velocity value in the field. A note’s velocity reflects how hard the key is pressed when you play the note.

D – Zoom slider: Drag to zoom in for a closer view or to zoom out to see more of the track.

E – Graphic/Notation View buttons: Click to change the editor to graphic view or notation view.

F – Display pop-up menu: Choose whether to show notes or controller data in the editor.

G – Fix Timing button: Click to fix the timing of notes in the selected region, or notes selected in the editor, so that notes move to the nearest grid position.

H – Beat ruler: Shows beats and measures for the area visible in the editor.

I – Playhead: Shows the point in the project currently playing.

J – Notes/controller data display: Shows the individual notes of Software Instrument regions in a graphic format.
You can move and resize notes to adjust their pitch, where they start playing, and how long they play.
Shows controller data when chosen in the Display pop-up menu.

K – Scroll bar: Drag the scroller to move to a different part of a track.

For Software Instruments—Notation View:

You can also view Software Instrument tracks and regions in notation view.
In notation view, notes and other musical events are shown in standard music notation.
You can edit notes and edit controller information (including velocity and pedal markings for sustain) in notation view.

A – Region Name field: Type a new name for the selected region in the field.

B – Region Pitch slider and field: Drag the slider to transpose the selected Software Instrument region up or down by up to 36 semitones.
You can also type the number of semitones in the field.

C – Velocity slider and field: Drag the slider to change the velocity of selected notes.
You can also type the velocity value in the field.
A note’s velocity reflects how hard the key is pressed when you play the note.

D – Zoom slider: Drag to zoom in for a closer view or to zoom out to see more of the track.

E – Graphic/Notation View buttons: Click to change the editor to graphic view or notation view.

F – Note Value button: Click to choose the note value for notes you add.

G – Fix Timing button: Click to fix the timing of notes in the selected region, or notes selected in the editor, so that notes move to the nearest grid position.

H – Beat ruler: Shows beats and measures for the area visible in the editor.

I – Playhead: Shows the point in the project currently playing.

J – Notation display: Shows the musical events of Software Instrument regions in standard music notation.
You can move notes to adjust their pitch and where they start playing, and change how long they play.

K – Scroll bar: Drag the scroller to move to a different part of a track.

For Podcasts and Video—Marker View:

When you are working on a podcast episode, you can view and edit markers in the editor.
In the marker list you can edit each marker’s time position, marker region artwork, URL, URL title, and chapter title.
You can also add episode artwork in the editor.


A – Preview: (Appears only when creating a podcast.)

B – Marks a Chapter checkbox: Shows whether the selected marker marks a chapter.

  • Displays Artwork checkbox: Shows whether the selected marker contains marker region artwork. (Appears only when creating a podcast.)
  • Displays URL checkbox: Shows whether the selected marker has a URL.

C – Add Marker button: Add a marker at the playhead position.

D – Marker list: Shows each marker’s start time, artwork (for podcasts) or video frame (for videos), chapter title, URL, and URL title.

E – Time column: Shows the start time for each marker.

F – Artwork column: Shows the artwork for each marker region.
Add artwork by dragging image files from the Media Browser. (Appears only when creating a podcast.)

  • Still Frame column: Shows the video frame at the position of each marker. (Appears only when working with a video.)

G – Chapter Title column: Shows the title of each chapter marker. Click and type a title for a marker.

H – URL Title column: Shows the title of each marker region’s URL. Click and type a title for the URL.

I – URL column: Shows the URL for each marker region. Type a URL (address) for the website for which you want to show a link.

Selecting Regions:

In order to edit a region in the editor, you first select the region in the timeline.

To select a region, do one of the following:

  • Select a single region by clicking it.
  • Select multiple regions by Shift-clicking.
  • Drag from a point before the first region to a point after the last one to select the regions in between.

Editing Real Instrument Regions:

You can edit Real Instrument regions in the editor in several ways.

You can:

  • Move regions
  • Crop part of a region
  • Join regions
  • Enhance the tuning of single-note (monophonic) regions
  • Enhance the timing of regions

The editor includes its own grid, which you can set independently of the grid for the timeline, using the Grid button in the upper-right corner of the editor.

Moving Real Instrument Regions:

You can move Real Instrument regions in the editor in order to align them precisely with measures and beats, or with other regions.

To move a Real Instrument region in the editor:

1. Move the pointer over the top part of the region, close to the beat ruler.
The pointer becomes a move pointer (a vertical line with arrows pointing left and right).
2. Drag the region to its new position.

Cropping Part of a Real Instrument Region:

You can easily cut part of a Real Instrument region, whether at the beginning, the end, or in the middle of the region.
This is especially useful if you want to delete, move, or copy an individual note, chord, or phrase in a region.

To crop part of a Real Instrument region:

1. Move the pointer over the place where you want to cut the region (except at the top).
The pointer becomes a crop pointer (a crosshair).
2. Drag to select the part of the region you want to crop.
The selected part of the region appears darker blue.
3. Click the selected part of the region.
4. The selected part is cropped from the rest of the region, and is now a separate region.
You can select it, delete it, move it, or copy it, just as you would any Real Instrument region.

Joining Real Instrument Regions:

You can join Real Instrument regions that are next to each other in the editor.

To join regions:

  • Select the regions, then choose Edit > Join (or press Command-J).

Enhancing the Tuning of Real Instrument Tracks:

You can enhance the tuning of a Real Instrument track.
This is especially useful when you record Real Instrument regions that have the right “feel” and timing but are not perfectly in tune.

When you use the Enhance Tuning slider, all regions on the selected track (both your own recordings and loops) are enhanced.
Enhance Tuning can only produce accurate results on single-note (monophonic) Real Instrument regions, so be sure the track does not include regions with chords or unpitched sounds.

By default, Enhance Tuning enhances the tuning of notes by moving them to the closest note in the project’s key.

You can limit the enhancement to the notes of the chromatic scale instead by deselecting the “Limit to key” checkbox.

To enhance the tuning of a Real Instrument track:

1. In the timeline, select the Real Instrument track you want to enhance.
2. Drag the Enhance Tuning slider right to increase the amount of tuning enhancement, or drag it left to decrease the amount of enhancement.
3. To limit tuning enhancement to the chromatic scale, deselect the “Limit to key” checkbox below the slider.

You hear the results immediately as the project plays.

Setting the Enhance Tuning slider to higher values can sometimes lead to undesirable results.
Listen carefully to the results of using the slider and set it to the value that sounds best.


Enhancing the Timing of Real Instrument Tracks
:

You can enhance the timing of a Real Instrument track.
This is especially useful when you record Real Instrument regions where the notes are the right pitch, but are not perfectly in time with the project.

When you use the Enhance Timing slider, all regions on the selected track (both your own recordings and loops) are enhanced.
You can enhance the timing of single-note, chordal, and percussion (unpitched) Real Instrument regions.
Enhance Timing works better with regions that contain distinct patterns of notes than with pads or ambient sounds.

To enhance the timing of a Real Instrument track:

1. In the timeline, select the Real Instrument region you want to enhance.
2. Drag the Enhance Timing slider to the right to increase the amount of timing enhancement, or drag it left to decrease the amount of enhancement.

If you move the Enhance Timing slider while the project is playing, it may take a moment for it to “catch up” with the music.

The Enhance Timing slider may not work equally well with all musical material, especially when set to higher values.

Listen carefully to the results of using the slider and set it to the value that sounds best.

Editing Software Instrument Regions:

You can edit Software Instrument regions in the editor in several ways.

You can:

  • Edit individual notes (including the note’s pitch, duration, and timing)
  • Edit controller information (including velocity, mod wheel, pitch bend, and sustain)


Editing Notes in a Software Instrument Region:

You can edit individual notes of a Software Instrument region.

When you view the region in the editor, individual notes in the region are displayed in a graphic format:

  • The left edge of the note shows the point in the timeline it starts playing.
  • The width of the note shows how long it plays.
  • The vertical position of the note shows its pitch, in relation to the piano keyboard displayed vertically along the left edge of the editor.

You can drag notes to a new starting point, resize notes to shorten or lengthen how long they play, and drag notes up or down to a different pitch.
You can also select multiple notes and edit them at the same time.

Note: To edit notes in the editor, you may need to zoom in so that the notes are large
enough to select and edit.

To edit notes in a Software Instrument region:

  • Drag the note left or right to a new starting point. You can use the beat ruler in the editor to align the note with a specific beat or measure.
  • Drag the lower-right corner of the note to resize it.
  • Drag the note up or down to raise or lower its pitch. Use the piano keyboard along the left edge of the editor to see the pitches.

You can also select multiple notes in the editor, and edit them at the same time.

To select multiple notes:

  • Shift-click or Command-click the notes you want to select.
  • Drag from a point before the first note to a point after the last note, enclosing the notes you want to select.

When you edit multiple notes, each note is changed by the same amount.

For example, if you select several notes and drag them to a new starting point, each note is moved by the same number of beats.
If you resize several notes at the same time, each note is shortened or lengthened by the same amount. If you drag several notes up or down to a different pitch, each note is changed by the same number of semitones.

You can also fix the timing of individual notes in the editor.
When you fix the timing of notes in the editor, the selected notes move to the nearest grid position, as set in the timeline grid menu in the upper-right corner of the editor.

To fix the timing of individual notes:

  • Select the notes you want to fix in the editor, then click the Fix Timing button (with the text “Align to” followed by a note value).


Editing Controller Information in a Software Instrument Region:

Most music keyboards designed to be used with computer music programs include “controllers” for pitch bend and modulation.
These controllers are often circular “wheels” placed at the left end of the keyboard. Some keyboards also include other controllers, such as a sustain pedal, a foot controller, or an expression control.

Moving the pitch bend wheel while you play causes the notes you play to bend up or down in pitch, like a guitar.
Moving the modulation wheel creates changes in the sound of the Software Instrument.
The changes are different for different instruments, but often involve changing the frequency, rate, or intensity of a filter applied to the instrument.

If you move a controller while recording a Software Instrument, the movements are recorded in the Software Instrument region.
You can see the movements you recorded and edit them in the editor.

To display controller information for a Software Instrument region:

1. Double-click the region to open it in the editor.
2. Choose the type of controller information you want to see from the Display pop-up menu.

Controller information is displayed as a line with “dots” at different points in time, similar to the way volume and pan curves are displayed in the timeline.
Each “dot” (called a control point) shows a change in value (in this case the movements of the controller) at that point in time.
You can edit the controller information by adding new control points, and by adjusting control points to change their value or to change where in the timeline they occur.

To add a control point:

  • Click the line in the editor at the point where you want to add a control point.

To adjust a control point, do one of the following:

  • Drag the control point up or down to a new value.
  • Drag the control point left or right to move it to a different point in time.

You can also view and edit Software Instrument regions in notation view in the editor.

Software Instruments

Using Musical Typing:

Using Musical Typing, you can play and record Software Instruments using your
computer keyboard. When you show the Musical Typing window, you can play the top
and middle row of your computer keyboard just like the keys on a music keyboard to
play notes.

To show the Musical Typing keyboard:

  • Choose Window > Musical Typing (or press Command–Shift–K).

To play notes using Musical Typing:

  • With the Musical Typing window open, play the keys shown on the Musical Typing keyboard.
  • The keys in the middle row of your computer keyboard play the “white keys” on the piano keyboard, in a one and one-half octave range from C through F.
  • The keys W, E, T, Y, U, O, and P in the top row of your computer keyboard play the “black keys” (sharps and flats).

To move up or down by octaves, do one of the following:

  • Press Z to move down by an octave.
  • Press X to move up by an octave.
  • Click the small keyboard at the top of the Musical Typing window to move to the octave shown, or drag the blue rectangle. The blue rectangle shows the current range of Musical Typing.

To change the velocity level of notes you play using Musical Typing:

  • Press C to lower the velocity level.
  • Press V to raise the velocity level.

To add pitch bend to notes you play using Musical Typing:

  • Press 1 to lower the pitch of notes.
  • Press 2 to raise the pitch of notes.

The pitch is bent for as long as you press the key.

To add modulation to notes you play using Musical Typing:

  • Press 4 through 8 to add increasing amounts of modulation. Press 3 to turn off modulation.

The level of modulation lasts until you change it or turn it off by pressing another key.

Using the Onscreen Music Keyboard:

You can use the onscreen music keyboard to play and record Software Instruments.
When you show the onscreen music keyboard, by default it displays a four-octave
range of keys. You can resize the keyboard to display up to 10 octaves.

To show the onscreen music keyboard:

  • Choose Window > Keyboard.

To play the onscreen music keyboard:

  • Click the notes on the keyboard. You can click when the project is playing, when it is stopped, or when recording.

Clicking a note lower on the key plays the note with a higher velocity (equivalent to
pressing the key harder), and clicking a note higher on the key plays the note with a lower velocity (equivalent to pressing the key more softly).

To move the keyboard:

  • Place the pointer anywhere in the space above the keys and drag.

To resize the keyboard:

  • Drag the resize control in the lower-right corner of the keyboard window.
  • To change the range of notes you can play:
  • Click the small triangle to the left or right of the keys. Clicking the triangle to the left lowers the keys by an octave, and clicking the triangle on the right raises the keys by an octave.

Adding a Software Instrument Track:

To record a Software Instrument, you can add a new Software Instrument track or
record on an existing Software Instrument track.

To add a Software Instrument track:

1. Click the Add Track button, or choose Track > New Track.
2. In the New Track dialog, click Software Instrument, then click Create.
The new track appears in the timeline, and the Track Info pane opens.
3. In the Track Info pane, select an instrument category from the Category list, then select the instrument you want to use from the Instrument list.

Getting Ready to Record:

If you are recording Software Instruments using a music keyboard, there are a few things to check before you start recording:

  • Make sure your music keyboard is connected to your computer and is working.
  • Select a Software Instrument track and try playing your music keyboard, clicking notes on the onscreen music keyboard, or using Musical Typing. You should hear the
  • Software Instrument as you play.

Recording a Software Instrument:

Now you’re ready to record a Software Instrument. You can record one Software
Instrument track at a time.

To record a Software Instrument:

1. Click the header of the Software Instrument track you want to record in to select the track.
2. Move the playhead to the point in the timeline where you want to start recording.
3. Choose Control > Count In to have the metronome play a one-measure count-in before recording starts.
You can also set the playhead a few beats before the point where you want the music to come in to make it easier to start on the beat.
4. Click the Record button to start recording.

5. Start playing your music keyboard, clicking notes on the onscreen music keyboard, or using Musical Typing.
As you record, a new region appears in the selected Software Instrument track.
6. When you are finished, click the Record button again to stop recording.
Click the Play button to stop the project playing.
After you record, you can listen to your new recorded part to see how you like it.

To hear the new recording:

1. Move the playhead to the point in the timeline where the new region starts (align it
with the left edge of the region).
You can also move the playhead to an earlier point in the project, or to the beginning of the project, to hear the new recording in the context of the project.
2. Click the Play button, or press the Space bar.

Recording a Software Instrument With the Cycle Region:

You can record a Software Instrument using a cycle region, similar to how you would
with a Real Instrument. When you record a Software Instrument with a cycle region,
you can keep recording for as many times as the cycle region repeats. Each new cycle is
merged with the region created the first time through the cycle region.

Changing Software Instrument Settings:

When you create a Software Instrument track, you select an instrument for the track in
the New Track dialog. You can change the instrument in the Track Info pane.

To change the instrument for a Software Instrument track:

1 Select the track, then click the Track Info button to open the Track Info pane.
2 Select an instrument category from the list on the left, then select a track instrument
from the list on the right.

The output of a Software Instrument is always stereo.

You can also add and adjust effects for a Software Instrument track.